CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE, DIABETES AND HYPERTENSION: REFERENCES AND NOTES
1. MacGregor, A. (2009). Chapter 8: Cardiovascular disease and diabetes. In Bromley, C., Bradshaw, P. and Given, L. [eds.] The 2008 Scottish Health Survey - Volume 1: Main Report. Edinburgh, Scottish Government. www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2009/09/28102003/0
2. MacGregor, A. and Mindell, J. (2010). Chapter 9: Cardiovascular disease, hypertension and diabetes. In Bromley, C., Given, L. and Ormston, R. [eds.] The 2009 Scottish Health Survey - Volume 1: Main Report. Edinburgh, Scottish Government. www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2010/09/23154223/0
3. MacGregor, A. and Mindell, J. (2011). Chapter 9: Cardiovascular disease diagnoses and symptoms. In Bromley, C., and Given, L. [eds.] The 2010 Scottish Health Survey - Volume 1: Main Report. Edinburgh, Scottish Government. www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2011/09/27084018/0
4. Scotland's Population 2011 - The Registrar General's Annual Review of Demographic Trends 157th edition, Edinburgh: National Records of Scotland, 2012. Available from: <http://www.gro-scotland.gov.uk/statistics/at-a-glance/annrev/2011/index.html>
5. Leyland, A.H., Dundas, R., McLoone, P. and Boddy, F.A. (2007) Inequalities in mortality in Scotland 1981-2001. Glasgow: MRC Social and Public Health Sciences Unit, Occasional Paper 16.
6. Scottish Budget Spending Review 2007, Edinburgh: Scottish Government, 2007. [online] Available from: <www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2007/11/13092240/0> See also: <www.scotlandperforms.com>
7. See: <www.scotland.gov.uk/About/Performance/scotPerforms/indicator/smoking>
8. See: <www.scotland.gov.uk/About/scotPerforms/indicator/physicalactivity>
9. See: <www.scotland.gov.uk/About/scotPerforms/indicator/healthyweight>
10. National Performance Framework: Changes to the National Indicator Set, Edinburgh: Scottish Government, 2012. [online] Available from: <www.scotland.gov.uk/About/scotPerforms/NIchanges> See also: <www.scotlandperforms.com>
11. See: <www.scotland.gov.uk/About/Performance/scotPerforms/indicator/mortality>
12. The HEAT targets derive their name from the four strands in the performance framework: the Health of the population; Efficiency and productivity, resources and workforce; Access to services and waiting times; and Treatment and quality of services.
13. Better Health, Better Care Action Plan. Edinburgh: Scottish Government, 2009.
14. See: <www.scotland.gov.uk/About/scotPerforms/partnerstories/NHSScotlandperformance/cardiovascularhealthcheck>
15. See: <www.scotland.gov.uk/About/scotPerforms/partnerstories/NHSScotlandperformance/Stroke>
16. Better Heart Disease and Stroke Care Action Plan. Edinburgh: Scottish Government, 2009.
17. Coronary Heart Disease and Stroke in Scotland - Strategy Update 2004, Edinburgh: Scottish Executive, 2004.
18. Details of the Quality and Outcomes Framework are available from: <www.isdscotland.org/isd/3305.html>
19. Health in Scotland 2007 - Annual Report of the Chief Medical Officer. Edinburgh: Scottish Government, 2008.
20. Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (February 2007). SIGN Guideline 97 Risk Estimation and the Prevention of Heart Disease. [online] Available from: <www.sign.ac.uk/guidelines/fulltext/97/index.html>
21. Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network. Management of diabetes. SIGN guidelines 116. Edinburgh: SIGN, 2010. <www.sign.ac.uk/guidelines/fulltext/116/index.html>
22. Diabetes Action Plan 2010: Quality Care for Diabetes in Scotland. Edinburgh: Scottish Government, 2010. < http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2010/08/17095311/0>
23. See: <www.scotland.gov.uk/News/Releases/2011/02/21091044>
24. Rutherford, L. and Purdon, S. Scottish Health Survey Waist and Blood Pressure Validation Study, Edinburgh: Scottish Government, Publication forthcoming.
25. See: Shelton, N. (2005). Volume 2: Adult health, Chapter 10: Diabetes. In: Bromley, C., Sproston, K. and Shelton, N., (eds.). The Scottish Health Survey 2003. Edinburgh: Scottish Executive.
26. Chaudhury, M. (2005). Volume 2: Adult health, Chapter 9: Blood pressure in adults. In: Bromley, C., Sproston, K. and Shelton, N., (eds.). The Scottish Health Survey 2003. Edinburgh: Scottish Executive.
27. Bromley, C., Corbett, J., D'Souza, J., Given, L. and Miller, M. (2010). Chapter 1: Methodology and response. In Bromley, C., Given, L. and Ormston, R. The 2009 Scottish Health Survey - Volume 2: Technical Report. Edinburgh: Scottish Government. http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2010/09/27093010/0
28. Bromley, C., Corbett, J., Given, L. McConville, S. and Pickering, K. (2011). Chapter 1: Methodology and response. In Bromley, C., Given, L. and Ormston, R. The 2010 Scottish Health Survey - Volume 2: Technical Report. Edinburgh: Scottish Government. http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2011/09/27124046/0
29. It should be noted that in common with the definition used since the 2003 report, diabetes and high blood pressure are not included in this definition of 'any CVD condition' (as they had been in 1995 and 1998), since they are risk factors for CVD.
30. National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (August 2011). Hypertension - Clinical management of primary hypertension in adults. Available from: <http://guidance.nice.org.uk/CG127/NICEGuidance>
31. Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network. Risk estimation and the prevention of cardiovascular disease. SIGN guidelines 97. Edinburgh: SIGN, 2007. <www.sign.ac.uk/pdf/sign97.pdf>
32. Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network. Management of patients with stroke or TIA: assessment, investigation, immediate management, and secondary prevention. SIGN guidelines 108. Edinburgh: SIGN, 2008. <www.sign.ac.uk/pdf/qrg108.pdf>
33. Wolf-Maier, K., Cooper, R.S., Kramer, H., Banegas, J.R., Giampaoli, S., Joffres, M.R., Poulter, N., Primatesta, P., Stegmayr, B and Thamm, M. (2004). Hypertension treatment and control in five European countries, Canada and the United States. Hypertension 43:10-17
34. Chobanian, A., Bakris, G.L., Black, H.R., Cushman, W.C., Green, L.A. and Izzo, J.L. et al. (2003). The seventh report of the Joint National Committee on prevention, detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure. The JNC7 report. Journal of the American Medical Association. 289:2560-72.
35. Guidelines Committee. (2003). European Society of Hypertension-European Society of Cardiology guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension. Journal of Hypertension. 21:1011-53.
36. Ramsay, L.E., Williams, B., Johnston, G.D., MacGregor, G.A., Poston, L., Potter, J.F., Poulter, N.R. and Russel, G. (1999). Guidelines for management of hypertension: report of the Third Working Party of the British Hypertension Society, 1999. Journal of Human Hypertension. 13:569-592.
37. Chowdhury, T.A. and Lasker, S.S. (1998). Elevated glycated haemoglobin in non-diabetic patients is associated with an increased mortality in myocardial infarction. Postgraduate Medical Journal. 74:480-1.
38. International Expert committee. International expert committee report on the role of the A1c assay in the diagnosis of diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2009;32:1327-34.
39. American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2010;33 (suppl1):S11-61.
40. British Medical Association. QOF Changes and New Indicators for 2009/10. London: BMA, 2009. <www.bma.org.uk/images/QOFchanges200910_tcm41-178932.pdf>
41. National Collaborating Centre for Chronic Conditions. Type 2 diabetes: national clinical guideline for management in primary and secondary care (update). London: Royal College of Physicians, 2008.
42. Rydén, L. Standl, E. Bartnik, M. et al. (2007). Guidelines on diabetes, pre-diabetes, and cardiovasular diseases: executive summary. The Task Force on Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD). European Heart Journal. 28:88-136.
43. Gould, A.L., Rossouw, J.E., Santanello, N.C., Heyse, J.F. and Furberg, C.D. (1995) Cholesterol reduction yields clinical benefit. Circulation. 91:2274-2282.
44. Shepherd J., Cobbe S.M., Ford I., Isles C.G., Lorimer A.R., MacFarlane P.W., McKillop J.H., Packard C.J. for the West of Scotland Coronary Prevention Study Group (WOSCOPS). Prevention of coronary heart disease with pravastatin in men with hypercholesterolaemia. New England Journal of Medicine. 1995;333:1301-1307.
45. Cholesterol Treatment Trialists' Collaborators. Efficacy and safety of cholesterol-lowering treatment: prospective meta-analysis of data from 90,056 participants in 14 randomised trials of statins. Lancet. 2005;366:1267-1278.
46. National Framework Service for Coronary Heart Disease Modern Standards and Service Models March 2000.
47. An overview of how the Quality Outcomes Framework operates in Scotland is available from: <www.isdscotland.org/isd/3310.html>
48. British Cardiac Society, British Hypertension Society, Diabetes UK, HEART UK, Primary Care Cardiovascular Society, The Stroke Association. JBS 2: Joint British Societies' guidelines on prevention of cardiovascular disease in clinical practice. Heart. 2005; 91 (Suppl V):v1-v52.
49. Fourth Joint European Societies' Task Force on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Clinical Practice. European Guidelines on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Clinical Practice. European Society of Cardiology, 2007.
50. In April 2010 the equipment used by the lab to analyse cholesterol (total and HDL) changed (as detailed in the 2010 Technical Report). This resulted in the total cholesterol concentrations measured after point this being on average 0.1 mmol/l higher than was the case with the previous equipment, while the HDL cholesterol concentrations were 0.1 mmol/l lower. As the tables report data from the whole 2008-2011 period, and the impact was minimal, no adjustments were made to the data presented in this chapter.
51. Gordon, D.J., Probstfield, J.L., Garrison, R.J., Neaton, J.D., Castelli, W.P., Knoke, J.D., Jacobs, D.R., Bangdiwala, S. and Tyroler, H.A. (1989). High-density lipoprotein cholesterol and cardiovascular disease: four prospective American studies. Circulation. 79:8-15.
52. Castelli, W.P., Garrison, R.J., Wilson, P.W.F., Abbott, R.D., Kalousdian, S. and Kannel, W.B. (1986). Incidence of coronary heart disease and lipoprotein cholesterol levels: the Framingham Study. Journal of the American Medical Association. 256:2835-2838.
53. Berge, K.G., Cannel, P.L. and Hainline, A. (1982) High-density lipoprotein cholesterol and prognosis after myocardial infarction. Circulation. 66:1176-1178.
54. De Oliveira e Silva ER, Foster SD, McGee Harper M, et al (2000). Alcohol Consumption Raises HDL Cholesterol Levels by Increasing the Transport Rate of Apolipoproteins A-I and A-II. Circulation. 102: 2347-2352
55. Ridker PM, Rifai N, Cook NR, Bradwin G, Buring JE., (2005) Non-HDL cholesterol, apolipoproteins A-I and B100, standard lipid measures, lipid ratios, and CRP as risk factors for cardiovascular disease in women. JAMA. 294: 326-33.
56. Kinosian B, Glick H, Garland G. (1994) Cholesterol and coronary heart disease: predicting risks by levels and ratios. Ann Intern Med. 121: 641-647.
57. R McPherson, J Frohlich, G Fodor, J Genest. (2006) Canadian Cardiovascular Society position statement - Recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of dyslipidemia and prevention of cardiovascular disease. Can J Cardiol. 22:913-27.
58. Mathews SC, Mallidi J, Kulkarni K, Toth PP, Jones SR (2012) Achieving Secondary Prevention Low-Density Lipoprotein Particle Concentration Goals Using Lipoprotein Cholesterol-Based Data. PLoS ONE 7:e33692.
59. Haverkate, F., Thompson, S.G., Pyke. S.D.M., Gallimore, J.R. and Pepys, M.B. (1997). For the European Concerted Action on Thrombosis, and Disabilities Angina Pectoris Study Group. Production of C-reactive protein and risk of coronary events in stable and unstable angina. Lancet 349:462-466.
60. Kuller, L.H., Tracy, R.P., Shaten,J. and Meilahn, E.N. (1996). for the MRFIT Research Group. Relationship of C-reactive protein and coronary heart disease in the MRFIT nested case-control study. American Journal of Epidemiology. 144:537-547.
61. Elliott, P., Chambers, J.C., Zhang W et al. (2009). Genetic loci associated with C-reactive protein levels and risk of coronary heart disease. Journal of the American Medical Association. 302:37-48.
62. Hingorani A, Sofat R, Morris RW, Whincup P, Lowe GD, Mindell J, Sattar N, Casa JP, Shah T (2012). Is it important to measure or reduce C-reactive protein in people at risk of cardiovascular disease? Eur Heart J. 2012; doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehs168.
63. Ridker, P,M,, Glynn, R.J., and Hennekens, C.H. (1998). C-reactive protein adds to the predictive value of total and HDL cholesterol in determining risk of first myocardial infarction. Circulation 97:2007-2011.
64. Shah, T., Casa, J.P., Cooper, J.A et al. (2009). Critical appraisal of CRP measurement for the prediction of coronary heart disease events: new data and systematic review of 31 prospective cohorts. International Journal of Epidemiology. 38:217-31.
65. Pearson, T.A., Mensah, G.A., Alexander, R.W. et al. (2003). Markers of inflammation and cardiovascular disease: application to clinical and public health practice. A statement for healthcare professionals from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American Heart Association. Circulation. 107: 499-511.
66. Lee AJ, Lowe GDO, Woodward M, Tunstall-Pedoe H. (1993). Fibrinogen in relation to personal history of prevalent hypertension, diabetes, stroke, intermittent claudication, coronary heart disease and family history: the Scottish Heart Health Study. Br Heart J. 69:338-42.
67. Aiello AE, Kaplan GA. (2009). Socioeconomic position and inflammatory and immune biomarkers of cardiovascular disease: applications to the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. Biodemography Soc Biol. 55:178-205.
68. Folsom AR, Wu KK, Rasmussen M, Chambless LE, Aleksic N, Nieto FJ. (2000) Determinants of population changes in fibrinogen and factor VII over 6 years: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology. 20:601-6.
69. Aresu, M., Gordon-Dseagu,V. and Shelton, N (2010). Chapter 4: Diabetes and Glycaemia. In Craig, R. and Hirani, V. [eds.] The Health Survey for England 2009 - Volume 1: Health and Lifestyles. The NHS Information Centre, Leeds, 2007.
70. The International Expert Committee. (2009) International Expert Committee Report on the Role of the A1C Assay in the Diagnosis of Diabetes. Diabetes Care. 32:1327-34.