The Scottish Health Survey: Volume 1: Main Report

DescriptionScottish Health Survey 2009 - Volume 1: Main report
ISBN2042-1613
Official Print Publication DateSeptember 2010
Website Publication DateSeptember 28, 2010

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ISBN 978 0 7559 9618 6
ISSN 2042-1613
DPPAS 10659

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Editors:

Catherine Bromley, Lisa Given, Rachel Ormston; Scottish Centre for Social Research.

Principal authors:

Joan Corbett, 1 Fiona Dobbie, 1 Mira Doig, 2 John D'Souza, 3 Lisa Given, 1 Linsay Gray, 4 Alastair Leyland, 4 Andy MacGregor, 1 Louise Marryat, 1 Tracey Maw, 5 Martine Miller, 1 Jennifer Mindell, 2 Rachel Ormston, 1 Marilyin Roth, 2 and Clare Sharp. 1

1 Scottish Centre for Social Research, Edinburgh.
2 Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, UCL Medical School.
3 National Centre for Social Research, London.
4MRC/ CSO Social and Public Health Sciences Unit, Glasgow.
5 Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Royal Victoria Infirmary, Newcastle.

Contents

Editors' Acknowledgements

Foreword from the Chief Medical Officer

Introduction

Notes to Tables

Chapter 1: General Health and Mental Wellbeing
1.1 Introduction
1.1.1 General health
1.1.2 Mental wellbeing
1.2 Self-assessed general health
1.2.1 Introduction
1.2.2 Self-assessed general health - adults
1.2.3 Self-assessed general health - children
1.3 Long-term conditions
1.3.1 Introduction
1.3.2 Prevalence and number of long-term conditions - adults
1.3.3 Prevalence and number of long-term conditions - children
1.4 Adult mental health and wellbeing
1.4.1 Introduction
1.4.2 WEMWBS mean score
1.4.3 Prevalence of symptoms of depression and anxiety
1.4.4 Prevalence of symptoms of depression and anxiety by socio-demographic characteristics
1.4.5 Factors associated with depression or anxiety symptoms
1.4.6 Suicide attempts
1.4.7 Suicide attempts by socio-demographic characteristics
1.4.8 Deliberate self-harm
1.4.9 Stress at work
1.5 Psychosocial health in children
1.5.1 Introduction
1.5.2 SDQ scores by age and sex
1.5.3 SDQ scores in 2003 and 2008/2009
1.5.4 SDQ scores by socio-demographic characteristics

Table 1.1 Adult self-assessed general health, 2008, 2009, by age and sex
Table 1.2 Prevalence of long-term conditions in adults, 2008, 2009, by age and sex
Table 1.3 Number of long-term conditions in adults, 2009, by age and sex
Table 1.4 Self-assessed general health in children, 1998, 2003, 2008/2009 combined, by age and sex
Table 1.5 Prevalence of long-term conditions in children, 2008/2009 combined, by age and sex
Table 1.6WEMWBS scores, 2008, 2009, by age and sex
Table 1.7CIS-R depression and anxiety symptom scores, attempted suicide and deliberate self-harm, 2008/2009 combined, by age and sex
Table 1.8CIS-R depression and anxiety symptom scores, attempted suicide and deliberate self-harm, 2008/2009 combined, (age-standardised), by NS-SEC of household reference person and sex
Table 1.9CIS-R depression and anxiety symptom scores, attempted suicide and deliberate self-harm, 2008/2009 combined, (age-standardised), by equivalised household income quintile and sex
Table 1.10CIS-R depression and anxiety symptom scores, attempted suicide and deliberate self-harm, 2008/2009 combined, (age-standardised), by Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation and sex
Table 1.11 Estimated odds ratios for symptom score of two or more on CIS-R depression or anxiety symptom scales, 2008/2009 combined, by associated risk factors
Table 1.12 Stress at work, 2009, by age and sex
Table 1.13 Children's strengths and difficulties scores, 2003, 2008/2009 combined, by age and sex
Table 1.14 Children's total difficulties scores, 2008/2009 combined, by NS- SEC of household reference person and sex
Table 1.15 Children's total difficulties scores, 2008/2009 combined, by equivalised household income quintile and sex
Table 1.16 Children's total difficulties scores, 2008/2009 combined, by Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation and sex

Chapter 2: Dental Health
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Methods and definitions of measurement
2.3 Dental health
2.3.1 Trends in natural teeth by age and sex, 1995, 1988, 2003, 2008 and 2009
2.3.2 Actions taken to improve dental health
2.4 Dental treatment
2.4.1 Last visit to the dentist
2.4.2 Dental anxiety
2.4.3 Difficulties experienced visiting a dentist

Table 2.1 Number of natural teeth, and % with no natural teeth, 1995, 1998, 2003, 2008, 2009, by age and sex
Table 2.2 Daily actions taken by people with some natural teeth to improve dental health, 2009, by age and sex
Table 2.3 Daily actions taken by people with dentures to improve dental health, 2009, by age and sex
Table 2.4 Length of time since last visit to dentist, 2009, by age and sex
Table 2.5 Length of time since last visit to dentist, and whether treatment was NHS/private, 2009, by sex
Table 2.6 Dental anxiety, 2009, by age and sex
Table 2.7 Difficulties when visiting the dentist, 2009, by age and sex

Chapter 3: Alcohol Consumption
3.1 Introduction
3.1.1 Sensible drinking guidelines and definitions of 'binge', 'hazardous' and 'harmful' drinking
3.2 Methods
3.2.1 Data collection in the 2008 and 2009 surveys
3.2.2 Unit calculations and conversion factors
3.3 Weekly alcohol consumption levels
3.3.1 Changes in usual weekly consumption since 2003
3.3.2 Usual weekly alcohol consumption by age and sex
3.3.3 Usual weekly alcohol consumption, by household income and sex
3.4 Estimated daily consumption
3.4.1 Trends in alcohol consumption on the heaviest drinking day in the last week by age and sex
3.4.2 Alcohol consumption levels on heaviest drinking day in last week by age and sex
3.5 Adherence to weekly and daily drinking advice
3.6 Problem drinking and physical dependency on alcohol
3.6.1 Problem drinking
3.6.2 Trends in problem drinking
3.6.3 Problem drinking by age and sex
3.6.4 Drunkenness by age and sex

Table 3.1 Estimated usual weekly alcohol consumption level, 2003, 2008, 2009, by age and sex
Table 3.2 Estimated usual weekly alcohol consumption level, 2008/2009 combined, by age and sex
Table 3.3 Estimated usual weekly alcohol consumption level, 2008/2009 combined, (age-standardised), by equivalised household income quintile and sex; and mean units by drinking category, equivalised household income quintile and sex
Table 3.4 Units consumed on heaviest drinking day in past week, 2003, 2008, 2009, by age and sex
Table 3.5 Estimated alcohol consumption level on heaviest drinking day in past week, 2008/2009 combined, by age and sex
Table 3.6 Potential problem drinking indicators, 1998, 2003, 2008, 2009, by age and sex
Table 3.7 Potential problem drinking indicators, 2008/2009 combined, by age and sex

Chapter 4: Smoking
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Methods
4.2.1 Smoking questions in the 2008 and 2009 Scottish Health Surveys
4.2.2 Cotinine
4.2.3 Definitions
4.3 Trends in smoking prevalence and exposure to second-hand smoke
4.3.1 Trends in smoking prevalence, by age and sex
4.3.2 Trends in non-smokers' exposure to second-hand-smoke by age and sex
4.4 Smoking prevalence in 2009
4.4.1 Self-reported cigarette smoking status, by age and sex
4.4.2 Number of cigarettes smoked by age and sex
4.4.3 Cotinine-adjusted cigarette smoking status, by age and sex

Table 4.1 Cigarette smoking status, 1995, 1998, 2003, 2008, 2009, by age and sex
Table 4.2 Non-smokers' exposure to second-hand smoke, 1998, 2003, 2008, 2009, by age and sex
Table 4.3 Saliva cotinine levels among self-reported cotinine validated non-smokers, 2003 and 2008/2009 combined, by age and sex,
Table 4.4 Self-reported cigarette smoking status, 2009, by age and sex
Table 4.5 Self-reported daily cigarette consumption, 2009, by age and sex
Table 4.6 Smoking prevalence estimates without and with saliva cotinine adjustment, 2008/2009 combined, by age and sex

Chapter 5: Diet
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Methodology
5.2.1 Measures of eating habits
5.2.2 The Dietary Quality Index ( DQI)
5.3 Fruit and vegetable consumption
5.3.1 Adult fruit and vegetable consumption, 2003, 2008, 2009, by age and sex
5.3.2 Child fruit and vegetable consumption, 2003, 2008/2009 combined, by age and sex
5.3.3 Child fruit and vegetable consumption, 2008/2009 combined, by parental consumption patterns
5.3.4 Child fruit and vegetable consumption by socio-demographic factors
5.3.5 Factors associated with fruit and vegetable consumption
5.4 Children's eating habits
5.4.1 Children's eating habits, 2003, 2008/2009 combined,
5.4.2 Diet quality by socio-demographic factors

Table 5.1 Adult fruit and vegetable consumption, 2003, 2008, 2009, by age and sex
Table 5.2 Child fruit and vegetable consumption, 2003, 2008/2009 combined, by age and sex
Table 5.3 Child fruit and vegetable consumption, 2008/2009 combined, by parental fruit and vegetable consumption and sex
Table 5.4 Child fruit and vegetable consumption, 2008/2009 combined, by NS-SEC of household reference person and sex
Table 5.5 Child fruit and vegetable consumption, 2008/2009 combined, by equivalised household income quintile and sex
Table 5.6 Child fruit and vegetable consumption, 2008/2009 combined, by Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation and sex
Table 5.7 Estimated associations for children's fruit and vegetable consumption, 2008/2009 combined, by associated risk factors and sex
Table 5.8 Summary of children's eating habits, 2003, 2008/2009 combined, by sex
Table 5.9 Children's diet quality, 2008/2009 combined, by age and sex
Table 5.10 Children's diet quality, 2008/2009 combined, by NS-SEC of household reference person and sex
Table 5.11 Children's diet quality, 2008/2009 combined, by equivalised household income quintile and sex
Table 5.12 Children's diet quality, 2008/2009 combined, by Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation and sex

Chapter 6: Physical Activity
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Methods
6.2.1 The adult physical activity questionnaire
6.2.2 Adult physical activity definitions
6.2.3 The child physical activity questionnaire
6.2.4 Child physical activity definitions
6.2.5 Comparisons of subjective and objective measures of child physical activity
6.3 Adult physical activity
6.3.1 Summary adult physical activity levels, 2008 and 2009
6.3.2 Adult participation in different activity types in the past 4 weeks, 2009
6.4 Child physical activity
6.4.1 Trends in the proportion of children meeting physical activity recommendations (excluding school-based activities)
6.4.2 Physical activity among children in 2008/2009
6.4.3 Children's physical activity levels by socio-demographic factors
6.4.4 Children's physical activity and body mass index
6.4.5 Children's physical activity and parental physical activity

Table 6.1 Adult summary activity levels, 2008, 2009, by age and sex
Table 6.2 Adult participation in different activity types for at least 10 minutes in the last four weeks, 2009, by age and sex
Table 6.3 Proportions of children meeting the physical activity recommendations (excluding activity at school), 1998, 2003, 2008, 2009, by age and sex
Table 6.4 Proportions of children meeting the physical activity recommendations (including activity at school), 2008, 2009, by age and sex
Table 6.5 Children's summary physical activity levels (including activity at school), 2008/2009 combined, by age and sex
Table 6.6 Children's summary physical activity levels (including activity at school), 2008/2009 combined, by NS-SEC of household reference person and sex
Table 6.7 Children's summary physical activity levels (including activity at school), 2008/2009 combined, by equivalised household income quintile and sex
Table 6.8 Children's summary physical activity levels (including activity at school), 2008/2009 combined, by Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation and sex
Table 6.9 Children's summary physical activity levels (including activity at school), 2008/2009 combined, by body mass index status, and sex
Table 6.10 Children's summary physical activity levels (including activity at school), 2008/2009 combined, by parental physical activity, and sex of child

Chapter 7: Adult Obesity
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Methods and definitions of measurement
7.2.1 Height
7.2.2 Weight
7.2.3 Body mass index ( BMI)
7.2.4 Waist and hip measurements
7.2.5 WHO combined classification of disease risk
7.3 Response to anthropometric measurements, by age and sex
7.4 Trends in the prevalence of overweight and obesity
7.5 BMI, by age and sex 2009
7.6 Trends in waist-hip ratio and waist circumference
7.6.1 Waist-hip ratio ( WHR)
7.6.2 Waist circumference ( WC)
7.7 Waist-hip ratio and waist circumference 2008/2009
7.7.1 Waist-hip ratio ( WHR), by age and sex
7.7.2 Waist circumference ( WC), by age and sex
7.8 Waist-hip ratio ( WHR) and waist circumference ( WC), by socio-demographic factors
7.8.1 Socio-economic classification ( NS-SEC)
7.8.2 Equivalised household income
7.8.3 Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation ( SIMD)
7.9 Using BMI and waist circumference to classify disease risk

Table 7.1 Response to anthropometric measurements (height, weight, BMI, waist and hip), 2008/2009 combined, by age and sex
Table 7.2 Mean BMI, prevalence of overweight and obesity, 1995, 1998, 2003, 2008, 2009, by age and sex
Table 7.3 Adult body mass index ( BMI), 2009, by age and sex
Table 7.4 Mean and raised waist-hip ratio ( WHR), mean and raised waist circumference ( WC), 1995, 1998, 2003, 2008/2009 combined, by age and sex
Table 7.5 Mean and raised waist-hip ratio ( WHR), mean and raised waist circumference ( WC), 2008/2009 combined, by age and sex
Table 7.6 Raised waist-hip ratio ( WHR) and raised waist circumference ( WC), (age-standardised), 2008/2009 combined, by NS-SEC of household reference person and sex
Table 7.7 Raised waist-hip ratio ( WHR) and raised waist circumference ( WC), (age-standardised), 2008/2009 combined, by equivalised household income quintile and sex
Table 7.8 Raised waist-hip ratio ( WHR) and raised waist circumference ( WC), (age-standardised), 2008/2009 combined, by Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation and sex
Table 7.9 Health risk category associated with overweight and obesity based on Body Mass Index ( BMI) and waist circumference, 2008/2009 combined, by age and sex

Chapter 8: Child Obesity
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Methods and definitions of measurements
8.3 Trends in Children's BMI
8.4 Children's BMI in 2009
8.4.1 BMI by age and sex
8.4.2 Child BMI by parental BMI
8.5 Overweight and obesity, by socio-demographic factors
8.5.1 Socio-economic classification ( NS-SEC)
8.5.2 Equivalised household income
8.5.3 Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation ( SIMD)
8.6 Factors associated with children's BMI

Table 8.1 Proportion of children with BMI outwith the healthy range, and prevalence of overweight and obesity in children, 1998, 2003, 2008, 2009, by age and sex
Table 8.2 Children's body mass index ( BMI), 2009, by age and sex
Table 8.3 Children's body mass index ( BMI), 2008/2009 combined, by parental body mass index ( BMI) and sex
Table 8.4 Children's body mass index ( BMI), and prevalence of overweight and obesity in children, 2008/2009 combined, by NS-SEC of household reference person and sex
Table 8.5 Children's body mass index ( BMI), and prevalence of overweight and obesity in children, 2008/2009 combined, by equivalised household income quintile and sex
Table 8.6 Children's body mass index ( BMI), and prevalence of overweight and obesity in children, 2008/2009 combined, by Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation and sex

Chapter 9: Cardiovascular disease, hypertension and diabetes
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Methods and definitions
9.2.1 Methods
9.2.2 Summary measures of cardiovascular disease and diabetes
9.2.3 Classification of blood pressure levels
9.2.4 Blood analytes
9.3 Prevalence of cardiovascular conditions and diabetes
9.3.1 Any CVD, and CVD or diabetes, 1995, 1998, 2003, 2008, 2009
9.3.2 IHD, stroke, and IHD or stroke, 1995, 1998, 2003, 2008, 2009
9.3.3 Diagnosed diabetes
9.3.4 Possible undiagnosed diabetes
9.4 Hypertension
9.4.1 Blood pressure level
9.4.2 Systolic blood pressure ( SBP)
9.4.3 Diastolic blood pressure ( DBP)
9.5 Factors associated with CVD, IHD, and stroke
9.5.1 Prevalence of risk factors amongst those with and without CVD conditions
9.5.2 Prevalence of risk factors amongst those with and without IHD or stroke
9.6 Multi-variable analysis of factors associated with any CVD

Table 9.1 Any CVD, any CVD or diabetes, IHD, stroke, IHD or stroke, 1995, 1998, 2003, 2008, 2009, by age and sex
Table 9.2 Prevalence of doctor-diagnosed diabetes, 1995, 1998, 2003, 2008/2009 combined, by age and sex
Table 9.3 Glycated haemoglobin level, 2003, 2008/2009 combined, by age and sex
Table 9.4 Blood pressure level, 1998, 2003, 2008/2009 combined, by age and sex
Table 9.5 Mean systolic pressure ( SBP) and mean diastolic pressure ( DBP), 1995, 1998, 2003, 2008/2009 combined, by age and sex
Table 9.6 Prevalence of risk factors among those with and without CVD, 2008/2009 combined, by age and sex
Table 9.7 Prevalence of risk factors among those with and without IHD or stroke, 2008/2009 combined, by age and sex
Table 9.8 Estimated odds ratios for any CVD, 2008/2009 combined, by associated risk factors and sex

Appendix A: Glossary

A National Statistics Publication for Scotland