The Scottish Health Survey 2008

DescriptionThe Scottish Health Survey 2008
ISBN9780755981076
Official Print Publication DateSeptember 2009
Website Publication DateSeptember 29, 2009

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A National Statistics Publication for ScotlandNational Statistics logo

ISBN 978 0 7559 8107 6
ISSN 2042-1605 (Print)
ISSN 2042-1613 (Online)

Volume 1 is also available in pdf format (1.3mb)
Volume 2 is also available in pdf format (3.1mb)

Contents

VOLUME 1: MAIN REPORT

Editors: Catherine Bromley, Paul Bradshaw, Lisa Given; Scottish Centre for Social Research.
Principal authors: Joan Corbett, 1 Lisa Given, 1 Linsay Gray, 2 Alastair Leyland, 2 Andy MacGregor, 1 Louise Marryat, 1 Martine Miller 1 and Susan Reid. 1
1 Scottish Centre for Social Research, Edinburgh.
2MRC Social and Public Health Sciences Unit, Glasgow.

Editors' Acknowledgements
Foreword from the Chief Medical Officer
Introduction
Notes to Tables

Chapter 1: General Health and Mental Wellbeing

1.1 Introduction
1.2 Self-assessed general health and long-term conditions
1.2.1 Introduction
1.2.2 Self-assessed general health
1.2.3 Long-term conditions
1.2.4 Factors associated with poor self-assessed health
1.3 Mental Health and wellbeing
1.3.1 Introduction
1.3.2 GHQ12 scores
1.3.3 WEMWBS mean score
1.3.4 WEMWBS by socio-demographic characteristics
1.3.5 Factors associated with 'below average' WEMWBS mean score

Table 1.1 Self-assessed general health, by age and sex
Table 1.2 Prevalence of long-term conditions, by age and sex
Table 1.3 Number of long-term conditions, by age and sex
Table 1.4 Rate of reported long term conditions per 1000 adults, by age and sex
Table 1.5 Estimated odds ratios for bad/very bad general health, by associated risk factors and sex
Table 1.6GHQ12 scores, 1995, 1998, 2003, 2008, by age and sex
Table 1.7WEMWBS mean scores, by age and sex
Table 1.8WEMWBS mean scores (observed and age-standardised), by NS- SEC of household reference person and sex
Table 1.9WEMWBS mean scores (observed and age-standardised), by equivalised household income quintile and sex
Table 1.10WEMWBS mean scores (observed and age-standardised), by Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation and sex
Table 1.11 Estimated odds ratios for below average WEMWBS mean score, by associated risk factors and sex

Chapter 2: Dental Health

2.1 Introduction
2.2 Methods and definitions of measurement
2.3 Dental health
2.3.1 Prevalence of natural teeth and dental problems, by age and sex
2.3.2 Toothache and prevalence of natural teeth by socio-demographic characteristics
2.4 Dental treatment
2.4.1 Perceived need for dental treatment by age and sex
2.4.2 Perceived need for dental treatment and self-assessed dental health

Table 2.1 Dental health (toothache, bleeding, difficulty chewing) in last month, by age and sex
Table 2.2 Toothache in last month (observed and age-standardised), by NS-SEC of household reference person and sex
Table 2.3 Toothache in last month (observed and age-standardised), by equivalised household income quintile and sex
Table 2.4 Toothache in last month (observed and age-standardised), by Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation and sex
Table 2.5 Perceived need for dental treatment, by age and sex
Table 2.6 Perceived need for dental treatment, by dental health (toothache, bleeding, difficulty chewing) and sex
Table 2.7 Dental health, by perceived need for dental treatment and sex

Chapter 3: Alcohol Consumption

3.1 Introduction
3.2 Methods
3.2.1 Data collection
3.2.2 Unit calculations and new conversion factors
3.2.3 Daily drinking threshold changes
3.3 Weekly alcohol consumption levels
3.3.1 Usual weekly consumption by age and sex
3.3.2 Changes in usual weekly consumption since 2003
3.3.3 Usual weekly consumption by socio-demographic factors
3.4 Estimated daily consumption
3.4.1 Alcohol consumption on heaviest drinking day in last week by age and sex
3.4.2 Changes in daily consumption since 2003
3.4.3 Daily alcohol consumption by socio-demographic factors
3.4.4 Factors associated with exceeding the daily limit and binge drinking
3.5 Problem drinking and physical dependency on alcohol
3.5.1 Problem drinking by age and sex
3.5.2 Trends in problem drinking
3.5.3 Drunkenness by age and sex

Table 3.1 Estimated usual weekly alcohol consumption level, by age and sex
Table 3.2 Estimated usual weekly alcohol consumption level, 2003, 2008, by age and sex
Table 3.3 Estimated usual weekly alcohol consumption level (observed and age-standardised), by NS-SEC of household reference person and sex
Table 3.4 Estimated usual weekly alcohol consumption level (observed and age-standardised), by equivalised household income quintile and sex
Table 3.5 Estimated usual weekly alcohol consumption level (observed and age-standardised), by Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation and sex
Table 3.6 Estimated alcohol consumption level on heaviest drinking day in past week, by age and sex
Table 3.7 Units consumed on heaviest drinking day in past week, 2003, 2008, by age and sex
Table 3.8 Estimated alcohol consumption level on heaviest drinking day in past week (observed and age-standardised), by NS-SEC of household reference person and sex
Table 3.9 Estimated alcohol consumption level on heaviest drinking day in past week (observed and age-standardised), by equivalised household income quintile and sex
Table 3.10 Estimated alcohol consumption level on heaviest drinking day in past week (observed and age-standardised), by Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation and sex
Table 3.11 Estimated odds ratios for exceeding the recommended daily alcohol limit on heaviest drinking day in past week, by associated risk factors and sex
Table 3.12 Potential problem drinking indicators, by age and sex
Table 3.13 Potential problem drinking indicators, 1998, 2003, 2008, by age and sex

Chapter 4: Smoking

4.1 Introduction
4.2 Methods
4.2.1 Smoking questions in the 2008 Scottish Health Survey
4.2.2 Cotinine
4.2.3 Definitions
4.3 Trends in smoking prevalence and exposure to second-hand Smoke
4.3.1 Trends in smoking prevalence, by age and sex
4.3.2 Trends in non-smokers' exposure to second-hand-smoke by age and sex
4.4 Smoking prevalence in 2008
4.4.1 Smoking prevalence, by age and sex
4.4.2 Number of cigarettes smoked by age and sex
4.4.3 Smoking prevalence by socio-demographic factors
4.5 Medical advice to give up smoking
4.6 Ex-smokers
4.7 Factors associated with smoking

Table 4.1 Cigarette smoking status, 1995, 1998, 2003, 2008, by age and sex
Table 4.2 Non-smokers' exposure to second-hand smoke, 1998, 2003, 2008, by age and sex
Table 4.3 Self-reported cigarette smoking status, by age and sex
Table 4.4 Self-reported daily cigarette consumption, by age and sex
Table 4.5 Self-reported cigarette smoking status (observed and age-standardised), by NS-SEC of household reference person and sex
Table 4.6 Self-reported cigarette smoking status (observed and age-standardised), by equivalised household income quintile and sex
Table 4.7 Self-reported cigarette smoking status (observed and age-standardised), by Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation and sex
Table 4.8 Medical advice to give up smoking, by age and sex
Table 4.9 Length of time since stopping regular smoking, by age and sex
Table 4.10 Estimated odds ratios for prevalence of self-reported cigarette smoking, by associated risk factors and sex

Chapter 5: Fruit and Vegetable Consumption

5.1 Introduction
5.2 Methodology
5.2.1 Measures of eating habits
5.3 Fruit and vegetable consumption
5.3.1 Portions of fruit and vegetables consumed, by age and sex
5.3.2 Fruit and vegetable items consumed, by age and sex
5.3.3 Fruit and vegetable consumption by socio-demographic factors
5.3.4 Factors associated with fruit and vegetable consumption

Table 5.1 Fruit and vegetable consumption, 2003, 2008, by age and sex
Table 5.2 Type of fruit and vegetable consumed, by age and sex
Table 5.3 Fruit and vegetable consumption (observed and age-standardised), by NS-SEC of household reference person and sex
Table 5.4 Fruit and vegetable consumption (observed and age-standardised), by equivalised household income quintile and sex
Table 5.5 Fruit and vegetable consumption (observed and age-standardised), by Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation and sex
Table 5.6 Estimated odds ratios for consuming five or more portions of fruit and vegetables, by associated risk factors and sex

Chapter 6: Physical Activity

6.1 Introduction
6.2 Methods
6.2.1 Adult physical activity questionnaire
6.2.2 Adult physical activity definitions
6.3 Trends in physical activity levels, 1998, 2003, 2008
6.4 Physical activity in 2008
6.4.1 Participation in different types of physical activity in the past 4 weeks
6.4.2 Summary physical activity levels
6.4.3 Physical activity levels by socio-demographic factors
6.5 Physical activity levels in relation to obesity
6.6 Factors associated with physical activity

Table 6.1 Participation in different activity types for at least 15 minutes in the last four weeks, 1998, 2003, 2008, by age and sex
Table 6.2 Participation in different physical activities for at least 10 minutes in the last four weeks, by age and sex
Table 6.3 Summary activity levels, by age and sex
Table 6.4 Proportion meeting the current physical activity recommendations (observed and age-standardised), by NS- SEC of household reference person and sex
Table 6.5 Proportion meeting the current physical activity recommendations (observed and age-standardised), by equivalised household income quintile and sex
Table 6.6 Proportion meeting the current physical activity recommendations (observed and age-standardised), by Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation and sex
Table 6.7 Proportion meeting the current physical activity recommendations (observed and age-standardised), by body mass index status and sex
Table 6.8 Estimated odds ratios for meeting the current physical activity recommendations, by associated risk factors and sex

Chapter 7: Obesity

7.1 Introduction
7.2 Methods and definitions of measurement
7.2.1 Height
7.2.2 Weight
7.2.3 Body mass index ( BMI)
7.3 Response to anthropometric measures, by age and sex
7.4 Height and weight, by age and sex
7.4.1 Height
7.4.2 Weight
7.5 Adult BMI
7.5.1 BMI by age and sex
7.5.2 Trends in BMI
7.6 Children's BMI
7.6.1 BMI by age and sex
7.6.2 Trends in children's BMI
7.7 Overweight and obesity, by socio-demographic factors
7.7.1 Socio-economic classification ( NS-SEC)
7.7.2 Equivalised household income
7.7.3 Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation ( SIMD)
7.8 Factors associated with overweight and obesity
7.8.1 Overweight including obese
7.8.2 Obesity

Table 7.1 Response to anthropometric measurements (height, weight & BMI), by age and sex
Table 7.2 Height, by age and sex
Table 7.3 Weight, by age and sex
Table 7.4 Body mass index ( BMI), by age and sex
Table 7.5 Mean BMI, prevalence of overweight and obesity, 1995, 1998, 2003, 2008, by age and sex
Table 7.6 Children's body mass index ( BMI), by age and sex
Table 7.7 Proportion of children with BMI outwith the healthy range, and prevalence of overweight and obesity in children, 1998, 2003, 2008, by age and sex
Table 7.8 Overweight and obesity prevalence and mean BMI (observed and age-standardised), by NS-SEC of household reference person and sex
Table 7.9 Overweight and obesity prevalence and mean BMI (observed and age-standardised), by equivalised household income quintile and sex
Table 7.10 Overweight and obesity prevalence and mean BMI (observed and age-standardised), by Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation and sex
Table 7.11 Estimated odds ratios for overweight, including obesity ( BMI >=25 kg/m 2), by associated risk factors and sex
Table 7.12 Estimated odds ratios for obesity ( BMI >=30 kg/m 2), by associated risk factors and sex

Chapter 8: Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes

8.1 Introduction
8.2 Methods and definitions
8.2.1 Methods
8.2.2 Summary measures of cardiovascular disease and diabetes
8.3 Prevalence of cardiovascular conditions and diabetes
8.3.1 Angina
8.3.2 Heart attack
8.3.3 Stroke
8.3.4 Heart murmur, abnormal heart rhythm and 'other' heart trouble
8.3.5 Diabetes
8.3.6 Any cardiovascular condition
8.3.7 Any CVD or diabetes
8.3.8 Ischaemic heart disease ( IHD)
8.3.9 IHD or stroke
8.4 CVD and diabetes by socio-demographic factors
8.4.1 Socio-economic classification ( NS-SEC)
8.4.2 Equivalised household income
8.4.3 Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation ( SIMD)
8.5 Factors associated with any CVD
8.6 Factors associated with IHD or stroke
8.7 Trends over time in CVD and diabetes
8.7.1 Any CVD, and CVD or diabetes, 1995, 1998, 2003, 2008
8.7.2 IHD, stroke, and IHD or stroke, 1995, 1998, 2003, 2008

Table 8.1 Prevalence of CVD conditions (ever and in the past 12 months) and diabetes, by age and sex
Table 8.2 Prevalence of any CVD, any CVD or diabetes, IHD, IHD or stroke, by age and sex
Table 8.3 Any CVD, any CVD or diabetes, IHD, IHD or stroke (observed and age-standardised), by NS-SEC of household reference person and sex
Table 8.4 Any CVD, any CVD or diabetes, IHD, IHD or stroke (observed and age-standardised), by equivalised household income quintile and sex
Table 8.5 Any CVD, any CVD or diabetes, IHD, IHD or stroke (observed and age-standardised), by Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation and sex
Table 8.6 Estimated odds ratios for any CVD, by associated risk factors and sex
Table 8.7 Estimated odds ratios for IHD or stroke, by associated risk factors and sex
Table 8.8 Any CVD, any CVD or diabetes, IHD, stroke, IHD or stroke, 1995, 1998, 2003, 2008, by age and sex

Appendix A: Glossary

VOLUME 2: TECHNICAL REPORT

Editors: Catherine Bromley, Paul Bradshaw, Lisa Given; Scottish Centre for Social Research.
Principal authors: Joan Corbett, 1 Lisa Given, 1 Linsay Gray, 2 Alastair Leyland, 2 Andy MacGregor, 1 Louise Marryat, 1 Martine Miller 1 and Susan Reid. 1
1 Scottish Centre for Social Research, Edinburgh.
2MRC Social and Public Health Sciences Unit, Glasgow.

Chapter 1: Methodology and Response

Table 1.1 Main sample household response, by Health Board
Table 1.2 Child boost sample household response, by Health Board
Table 1.3 Summary of adults' individual response to the survey, by sex
Table 1.4 Men in co-operating households, response to the stages of the survey, by age
Table 1.5 Women in co-operating households, response to the stages of the survey, by age
Table 1.6 Summary of children's individual response to the survey, by sample type and sex
Table 1.7 Children in co-operating households, response to the stages of the survey, by age and sex
Table 1.8 Age distribution of responding adult sample compared with 2008 mid-year population estimates for Scotland, by sex
Table 1.9 Age distribution of responding child sample compared with 2008 mid-year population estimates for Scotland, by sex
Table 1.10 Age distribution of responding adult sample compared with 2008 mid- population estimates for Scotland, by Health Board and sex
Table 1.11 True standard errors and 95% confidence intervals for general health variables
Table 1.12 True standard errors and 95% confidence intervals for dental health
Table 1.13 True standard errors and 95% confidence intervals for alcohol variables
Table 1.14 True standard errors and 95% confidence intervals for cigarette smoking variables
Table 1.15 True standard errors and 95% confidence intervals for fruit and vegetable variables
Table 1.16 True standard errors and 95% confidence intervals for physical activity
Table 1.17 True standard errors and 95% confidence intervals for anthropometric measurement variables
Table 1.18 True standard errors and 95% confidence intervals for CVD variables and diabetes

Chapter 2: Quality Control of Blood and Saliva Analytes

Table 2.1 Reference intervals for analytes
Table 2.2 Internal quality control results for total cholesterol
Table 2.3 Internal quality control results for HDL-cholesterol
Table 2.4 Internal quality control results for C-reactive protein
Table 2.5 Internal quality control results for glycated haemoglobin
Table 2.6 Internal quality control results for fibrinogen
Table 2.7 Internal quality control results for urine sodium
Table 2.8 Internal quality control results for urine potassium
Table 2.9 Internal quality control results for urine creatinine
Table 2.10 Internal quality control results for cotinine
Table 2.11 External quality assessment results for total cholesterol
Table 2.12 External quality assessment results for HDL-cholesterol
Table 2.13 External quality assessment results for C-reactive protein
Table 2.14 External quality assessment results for glycated haemoglobin
Table 2.15 External quality assessment results for fibrinogen
Table 2.16 External quality assessment results for urine sodium
Table 2.17 External quality assessment results for urine potassium
Table 2.18 External quality assessment results for urine creatinine

Appendix A: Fieldwork Documents
Respondent Information Leaflet
Advance Letters
Stage 1 Leaflets - Interviewer
Stage 2 Leaflet - Nurse
Measurement Record Card
Household questionnaire, individual and nurse questionnaires
Stage 1 Show cards - Interviewer
Stage 2 Show cards - Nurse
Self-completion booklet for parents of 4-12 year olds
Self-completion booklet for 13-15 year olds
Self-completion booklet for young adults
Self-completion booklet for adults
Consent Booklet
NHSrecord linkage consent forms for adults and children
SGFollow-up consent forms for adults and children

Appendix B: Measurement Protocols

Appendix C: Health Board Areas

Appendix D: Glossary

A National Statistics Publication for Scotland