References and Notes
1. Whyte B. Scottish mortality in a European context, 1950-2000. An analysis of comparative mortality trends. Scot PHO 2007.
2. Carstairs, V., Morris R. (1989) Deprivation: explaining differences in mortality between Scotland and England and Wales. BMJ 299: 886-889
3. Hanlon, P., Lawder, R. S., Buchanan, D., Redpath, A., Walsh, D., Wood, R., Bain, M., Brewster, D. H., Chalmers, J. (2005) Why is mortality higher in Scotland than in England and Wales? Decreasing influence of socio-economic deprivation between 1981 and 2001 supports the existence of a 'Scottish Effect'. Journal of Public Health 27(2): 199-204
4. Walsh D, Bendel N, Jones R, Hanlon P. It's not "just deprivation": why do equally deprived UK cities experience different health outcomes? Public Health 2010;124(9):487-95.
5. Wild, S.H., Fischbacher, C., Brock, A., Griffiths, C., Bhopal, R., 2007. Mortality from all causes and circulatory disease by country of birth in England and Wales 2001-2003. Journal of Public Health 29 (2), 191-8.
6. Fischbacher, C.M., Steiner, M., Bhopal, R., Chalmers, J., Jamieson, J., Knowles, D., et al., 2007. Variations in all cause and cardiovascular mortality by country of birth in Scotland, 1997-2003. Scottish Medical Journal 52 (4), 5-10
7. Popham, F., et al., The Scottish excess in mortality compared to the English and Welsh. Is it a country of residence or country of birth excess? Health & Place (2010), doi:10.1016/j.healthplace.2010.03.007
8. Hanlon, P., Walsh, D., Whyte, B. Let Glasgow Flourish, The Glasgow Centre for Population Health, 2008.
9. Gray L. Comparisons of health-related behaviours and health measures in Greater Glasgow with other regional areas in Europe. The Glasgow Centre for Population Health, 2008.
10. Gray L. Comparisons of health-related behaviours and health measures between Glasgow and the rest of Scotland. The Glasgow Centre for Population Health, 2007.
11. McCartney, G., Walsh, D., Collins, C., Batty, D. Accounting for Scotland's excess mortality: towards a synthesis. The Glasgow Centre for Population Health, 2010 (in press).
12. Bromley, C., Given, L. and Ormston, R. [eds.] The 2009 Scottish Health Survey Volume 1: Main Report. Edinburgh, Scottish Government:
13. Bromley, C., Given, L. and Ormston, R. [eds.] The 2009 Scottish Health Survey Volume 2: Technical Report. Edinburgh, Scottish Government:
14. There are only 76 participants aged 16 plus and over who do not know how many cigarettes they smoke a day.
15. The CAGE questionnaire contains six statements:
- I have felt that I ought to cut down on my drinking
- I have felt ashamed or guilty about my drinking
- People have annoyed me by criticising my drinking
- I have found that my hands were shaking in the morning after drinking the previous night
- I have had a drink first thing in the morning to steady my nerves or get rid of a hangover
- There have been occasions when I felt that I was unable to stop drinking
16. FAQ: What are pseudo R-squareds? UCLA: Academic Technology Services, Statistical Consulting Group.
http://www.ats.ucla.edu/stat/mult_pkg/faq/general/Psuedo_RSquareds.htm (accessed September 27, 2010).
17. Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale ( WEMWBS), User Guide Version 1, Stewart-Brown, Sarah and Janmohamed, Kulsum, edited by Jane Parkinson, NHS Health Scotland, 2008
18. Tennant, R., Hiller, L., Fishwick, R., Platt, S., Stephen, J., Weich, S., Parkison, J., Secker, J., & Stewart-Brown, S. (2007). The Warwick- Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale ( WEMWBS): development and UK validation. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 16(9): 606-613
19. Hankins M. (2008)The factor structure of the twelve item General Health Questionnaire ( GHQ-12): the result of negative phrasing? Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health. 2008; 4: 10.
20. J. C. Skogen, A. Mykletun, C. P. Ferri, P. Bebbington, T. Brugha, J. Coid, H. Meltzer and R. Stewart Mental and personality disorders and abstinence from alcohol: results from a national household survey. Psychological Medicine, Available on CJO 21 Jul 2010 doi:10.1017/S0033291710001388
21. Paluska S.A., Schwenk T.L. (2000) Physical Activity and Mental Health: Current Concepts, Sports Medicine, 29:3 pp. 167-180(14)
22. Bakhru A, Erlinger TP (2005) Smoking Cessation and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors: Results from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. PLoS Med 2(6): e160
23. Wannamethee, S. G. and Shaper, A. G. (1998) Alcohol, Coronary Heart Disease and Stroke: An Examination of the J-Shaped Curve, Neuroepidemiology 17:288-295
24. Gray L. and Leyland A. (2009) Is the "Glasgow Effect" of cigarette smoking explained by socio-economic status?: A multilevel analysis, BMC Public Health, 9:245-252
25. Gray L. and Leyland A. (2009) A multilevel analysis of diet and socio-economic status in Scotland: investigating the 'Glasgow Effect', Public Health Nutrition, 12: 1351-1358
26. Kuh, D., Ben-Shlomo, Y.,http://jech.bmj.com/content/57/10/778.abstract - aff-2#aff-2 Lynch, J., Hallqvist, J., Power, C. Life course epidemiology, Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 2003;57:778-783