Constitutional Timeline

Constitutional Timeline

PRE 1700:

162

Antonine's Wall between Clyde and Forth in Caledonia abandoned as Romans retreat to Hadrian's Wall

565

Columba establishes monastery on Iona

843

Kenneth MacAlpine unites Scots and Picts in 'Kingdom of Scotland'

1293

Earliest existing record of a Scottish Parliament

1297

English army defeated at Battle of Stirling Bridge by William Wallace

1314

Edward II defeated at Battle of Bannockburn by Robert the Bruce

1320

Declaration of Arbroath - confirmation of Scotland's status as an independent country in form of letter to Pope John XXII

1413

St Andrew's University established

1513

James IV, King of Scots, killed at Battle of Flodden

1542

Birth of Mary Queen of Scots

1587

Execution of Mary Queen of Scots

1603

James VI of Scotland becomes James I of England

1625

Charles I succeeds James VI and I

1638

National Covenant

1642 - 1651

English Civil War

1644 - 1645

Scottish Civil War ends in victory for Covenanters over Royalists led by James Graham, Marquess of Montrose

1651-1660

Interregnum, Cromwell's New Model Army occupies Scotland

1660

Restoration of monarchy with Charles II

1689

William and Mary proclaimed king and queen

1692

Massacre of Glencoe after Clan MacDonald chief fails to pledge allegiance to new monarchs

1697

Scottish Education Act sets out to achieve a school in every parish

1698

Ships of the Company of Scotland set sail for Darien in Panama in an ultimately futile and ruinously expensive attempt to establish overseas colony

1700 - 1900:

1701

English Parliament passes Act of Settlement to ensure Protestant succession through Hanoverian line

1702

Death of King William and accession of Queen Anne

1703

Scottish Parliament passes Act of Security claiming right to appoint its choice of successor. Royal Assent is refused

1705

English Parliament passes Alien Act branding Scots aliens but with proposal for Union of the two parliaments. Queen Anne appoints commissioners

1707

Act of Union ratified by Scottish Parliament creates United Kingdom of Great Britain. Parliament dissolved

1714

George I succeeds Queen Anne

1715

First Jacobite rising - the Old Pretender flees

1745

Second Jacobite rising

1746

Battle of Culloden-the Young Pretender flees

1747

Post of Secretary of State for Scotland abolished

1750

Highland Clearances begin

1759

Birth of Robert Burns, National Bard

1776

Adam Smith publishes An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations

1800

Union with Ireland creates UK of Great Britain and Ireland

1829

Catholic emancipation granted by British Parliament

1837

Queen Victoria takes the throne

1843

The Disruption - 450 Ministers walk out of Kirk's General Assembly in row over patronage and relationship with the State

1885

Secretary of Scotland Act and creation of Scottish Office

1886

Scottish Home Rule Association founded

1888

Mid Lanark by-election - first Labour platform to include 'Home Rule for Scotland'

1900 - PRESENT:

1900

Formation of Labour Party with Keir Hardie as first chairman, supporting Home Rule for Scotland and Wales

1914

First World War begins

1916

Easter Rising in Dublin

1922

Anglo-Irish Treaty establishes Irish Free State, Northern Ireland partitioned

1924

Britain's first Labour Government elected

1926

General Strike, cabinet post of Secretary of State for Scotland restored

1928

Equal Franchise Act gives women the vote on the same terms as men

1934

Establishment of Scottish National Party

1939

Outbreak of Second World War

1942

Beveridge report on 'cradle to grave' Welfare State

1945

SNP's first Parliamentary representation when Robert McIntyre wins Motherwell by-election

1953

Coronation of Queen Elizabeth, controversy over designation as ERII

1967

Hamilton by-election victory for SNP puts constitutional affairs top of UK agenda

1968

Prime Minister Edward Heath commits Conservative and Unionist Party to Scottish Devolution in 'Declaration of Perth'

1969

Formation of Royal Commission on Constitution (Kilbrandon) to investigate UK's constitutional structures

1973

Kilbrandon Commission recommends devolved assemblies for Scotland and Wales

1975

First North Sea oil produced

1979

Referendum result in favour of a Scottish Assembly fell short of the required 40 per cent condition

1988

Publication of 'A Claim of Right' by Campaign for a Scottish Assembly

Merger of pro-devolution Liberal & Social Democrat parties

1989

First meeting of Scottish Constitutional Convention

1997

Referendum provides overwhelming support for a Scottish Parliament with tax raising powers

1998

Scotland Act assigns devolved powers to a Scottish Parliament

1999

Scottish Parliament reconvenes on the Mound in Edinburgh, the oldest MSP Winnie Ewing says:

'The Scottish Parliament, which adjourned on March 25, 1707 is hereby reconvened'

2004

Royal opening of Scottish Parliament at Holyrood

2007

Launch of National Conversation on Scotland's Constitutional Future by Scottish Government

2008

Formation of Commission on Scottish Devolution (Calman) to review experience of devolution since 1998

2009

Launch of Your Scotland, Your Voice

2010

Scotland Bill introduced at Westminster

2011

SNP win majority of seats at election to form Holyrood's first majority government