Menu

inherited

Statistics Help

Can't find what you're looking for?

Then Browse through all our statistics.

Quick Links

Related Topics

Contacts

We welcome enquiries and feedback:

Scottish Neighbourhood Statistics

Scottish Neighbourhood Statistics

Social and Welfare - Income and Poverty - Main Analyses

Main Analyses - Introduction

The following charts show a broad range of Family Resources Survey based analyses relating to income and low income in Scotland.

Scroll down to see sub-population poverty estimates, household income distributions, trends in median income, income source, savings and assets, and income inequality.

Proxy income data for Local Authority areas are at the bottom of the page. These data are not based on the Family Resources Survey.

Please refer to the methodology section for detailed information about the methodology, terminology and definitions used to calculate these analyses.



Poverty and income inequality - main figures

Contents

This page contains key figures about income and poverty in Scotland

The following analysis sections contain statistics from 2012-13:

Headline poverty figures - child, adult and pensioner poverty

Income inequality - Gini coefficient

 

Additional analysis for 2012-13 will be updated following publication.  The following sections contain statistics from 2011-12 which will be updated in due course:

Poverty in urban and rural areas

Disability and poverty

Gender and poverty

Ethnicity and poverty

Household tenure and poverty

Savings by income decile

Sources of income by income decile

 

Headline figures - child, adult and pensioner poverty

The main figures about income and poverty, such as headline figures on child, pensioner and adult poverty, are published in the statistical publication 'Poverty and income inequality in Scotland'. This is available to view and download at the following link: Poverty and Income Inequality in Scotland: 2012/13

Poverty in Scotland has increased in 2012/13. While the rate of poverty increased for all groups, the largest increase was in the rate of child poverty.

Relative poverty, before housing costs (BHC) in Scotland has increased to 16 per cent for the whole population, a 2 percentage point increase on the previous year. In 2012/13 there were 820,000 people living in poverty, 110,000 more than the previous year.

Relative child poverty (BHC), increased to 19 per cent in 2012/13, up from 15 per cent the previous year. In 2012/13, there were 180,000 children living in relative poverty in Scotland, 30,000 more than in 2011/12. This reverses the trend of declining child poverty over recent years.

Relative poverty (BHC) among working age adults in 2012/13 was 15 per cent, an increase from 13 per cent the previous year. This brings the number of working age adults in relative poverty to 480,000, an increase of 70,000 compared with 2011/12.

Relative poverty (BHC) among pensioners in 2012/13 was 15 per cent, an increase from 14 per cent the previous year. There were 150,000 pensioners in relative poverty in 2012/13, 10,000 more than the previous year.

 
 

Gini Coefficient

The most widely used summary measure of the degree of inequality in the household income distribution is the Gini coefficient.

The Gini coefficient represents an overall measure of the cumulative income share against the share of households in the population. It ranges between 0 and 100 with 0 indicating total equality of income across a population and 100 indicating total inequality (if one household had all the income).

Gini 2012/13

The graph shows that since 1994/95 household income in Scotland has generally been more equally distributed than in Great Britain and the United Kingdom as a whole. However, the gap narrowed between 2004/05 and 2008/09, before increasing again in 2010/11. Since 2010/11 this gap has narrowed again.

Between 1995/96 and 2008/09, the Gini coefficient in Scotland has increased from 30 to 34, meaning that income has become less equally distributed, but it dropped to around 30 in 2010/11. In 2012/13 the Gini coefficient for Scotland was 31.

To download the figures behind this chart, and view related figures click on the following link:

Gini Coefficient 2012/13

 

The following sections contain statistics from 2011-12 which will be updated in due course:

Poverty in urban and rural areas

urban ruralThe following chart breaks down relative poverty (before housing costs) by urban and rural areas:

  • In 2011/12 14 per cent of individuals in urban areas were in relative poverty (before housing costs). In rural areas this figure was 12 percent.
  • Other measures of poverty such as absolute poverty (after housing costs) also suggest that income poverty is less prevelant in rural than in urban areas

To download the figures behind this chart, and view related figures click on the following link:

Poverty figures 2011/12

 

 

Disability and poverty

This chart shows the proportion of individuals in families containing a disabled adult who are in relative poverty (before housing costs).

Please note, some of the sample sizes underlying these estimates are small and caution should be exercised in the interpretation of year-on-year fluctuations. Identification of trends should be based on data for several years.

disability

  • Between 2002/03 and 2011/12 the proportion of individuals in relative poverty (before housing costs) was higher in families containing a disabled adult than in families with no disabled adults.
  • In 2011/12 19 percent of individuals in families containing a disabled adult were in relative poverty. For families with no disable adults the figure was 12 percent.
  • The percentage of people in families containing a disabled adult in relative poverty (before housing costs) has fallen from 26 per cent in 2002/03 to 19 per cent in 2011/12.  The percentage of people who are not in families containing a disabled adult has also fallen from 18 per cent in 2002/03 to 12 per cent in 2011/12, with the biggest drop occurring between 2009/10 and 2010/11.

 

To download the figures behind this chart, and view related figures click on the following link:

Poverty figures 2011/12

 

 

Gender and poverty

genderOverall there is little difference in the relative poverty rates (before housing costs) for adult men and adult women (14 and 13 per cent respectively, not statistically significant).

A more helpful way of analysing poverty rates by gender is by comparing single adult household compositions (see chart):

  • For single pensioners without children, 17 percent of men are in poverty, compared to 18 percent of women.
  • The gender divide is more obvious for single working age adults without children. In this case 21 percent of men are in poverty, whereas for women the figure is 17 percent.
  • The poverty rate for single women with children is 21 percent. In Scotland there are so few households composed of a single man and children that we cannot produce robust poverty figures for this group.

To download the figures behind this chart, and view related figures click on the following link:

Poverty figures 2011/12

 

 

Ethnicity and poverty

ethnicityThis chart shows the percentage of households in relative poverty (before housing costs) by ethnic group. These figures are based on aggregated data from 2009/10 to 2011/12 inclusive. The 'Mixed', 'Black / Black British', 'Chinese' and 'Other' ethnic groups all have sample sizes that are too small to reliably report on their own. Thus they have been combined into a single category so that they can be reported.

People from minority ethnic (non-white) groups are almost twice as likely to be in relative poverty (before housing costs) compared to those from the 'White - British' group (28 percent and 15 percent respectively).

24 percent of people from the 'Asian / Asian British' group are in poverty, whilst for the combined 'Mixed', 'Black / Black British', 'Chinese' and 'Other' group, the figure is 32 percent.

Those in the 'White - Other' group are slightly more likely than those in the 'White - British' group to be in poverty (19 percent poverty rate compared to 15 percent).

To download the figures behind this chart, and view related figures click on the following link:

Poverty figures 2011/12

 

 

Household tenure and poverty

tenureThis chart breaks down the number of households in relative poverty (before housing costs) by whether they are renting or own their own house.

  • 'Owned with mortgage' is the most common household tenure across Scotland. 780 thousand households have this type of tenure. Relative poverty is rare in this tenure with 93 percent of these households classed as 'not poor' by this measure.
  • Poverty is most prevalent among those who are renting, either privately or from the council or a housing association. 27 per cent of those renting from a council or housing association are in relative poverty (before housing costs) and 19 per cent of those renting privately are in in relative poverty.
  • 16 percent of those who own outright are in relative poverty. This accounts for almost third of all households in relative poverty. These figures could be considered to be surprisingly high. The poverty measure which is used here is based on income and does not include assets. Many of these poor homeowners are pensioners.

To download the figures behind this chart, and view related figures click on the following link:

Poverty figures 2011/12

 

 

Savings by income decile

savingsThis chart breaks down the ten Scottish income deciles by the amount of savings belonging to the individuals within them.

  • The chart shows that as well as having higher incomes, individuals towards the top end of the income distribution also have higher savings to draw upon.
  • In the bottom three income deciles around two thirds of people have savings of below £1,500. In the top two deciles this figure is less than 40 per cent.

To download the figures behind this chart, and view related figures click on the following link:

Poverty figures 2011/12

For explanation of terms used here such as decile and equivalisation see the methodology section of the website.

 

 

Sources of income by income decile

incomeThis chart breaks down the ten Scottish income deciles by the proportions of income that they receive from different sources.

  • In all but the three bottom deciles earnings from work make up the highest proportion of total income.
  • At the top end of the income distribution they make up a much higher proportion of people's incomes than at the bottom end.
  • In the top three deciles around 80 per cent of income is from earnings.
  • In the bottom two deciles this figure is closer to 40 per cent, with approximately a half coming from benefits and tax credits.

To download the figures behind this chart, and view related figures click on the following link:

Poverty figures 2011/12

For explanation of terms used here such as decile and equivalisation see the methodology section of the website.

 

 

Local Authority level poverty information

The national poverty figures from the Households Below Average Income datasets cannot be broken down to Local Authority level in Scotland, meaning poverty figures for Local Authorities are not available. Proxy indicators are used by people interested in poverty at LA level and two of the main proxy indicators are HM Revenue and Customs tax credit data and figures from the Scottish Household Survey:

Tax credit and benefit claimant data from HM Revenue and Customs can be used as proxy data for child poverty at a Local Authority level. This is defined as the "percentage of children in each Local Authority that live in families in receipt of out of work benefits or tax credits where their reported income is less than 60% of median income".

Data from the Scottish Household Survey can be used to provide some indication of household income at Local Authority Level and further information is available on request.

Click here to download Tax credit and benefit claimant data

Please see the data sources and suitability section of the website for more information about the data sources which are available to find out more about income and poverty at a sub-scotland level.

Estimates of local area poverty were published in March 2013 by the Improvement Service. Local Incomes and Poverty in Scotland developed local and small area estimates and explored patterns of income distribution, poverty and deprivation.