National Risk Framework to Support the Assessment of Children and Young People

Listen

Risk Indicator Sheets

Generic Risk Indicators
(Child, Parent/Carer and Wider World)

Matrix Related Risk Indicators
(Child, Parent/Carer and Wider World)

  • Resilience
  • Adversity
  • Vulnerability
  • Protective

Resistance Related Risk Indicators
(Child, Parent/Carer and Wider World)

Generic Risk Indicators

A collection of Generic Risk Indicators drawn from research and practice that help highlight potential risk factors within a child's/young person's life circumstances relative to the three dimensions of assessment within the My World Triangle - the child (how I grow and develop), parent/carer (what I need from the people who care for me) and their wider world.

Generic Risk Indicators

Risk Indicators Particular to the Child (How I Grow and Develop)

Generic Indicators - The Child Child 1 Child 2 Child 3 Child 4 Notes
Premature birth/ low birth weight
Early prolonged separation at birth
Baby born with substance withdrawal (NAS)
Very young - highly dependent (birth - 5 years)
Cries frequently, difficult to comfort
Difficulties in feeding/toileting
Periods of separation from parent/primary caregiver
Adopted or step-child
Fostered
Child developmental delay
Child mental health difficulties
Child learning disabilities
Child behavioural difficulties
Difficult temperament
Health issues requiring ongoing medical treatment
Engaging in self-harm
Involved in substance misuse
Anti-social behaviour/relationships
Involved in offending
Evidence sexually inappropriate behaviour
Poor relationship with parents
Fearful of parent/caregiver
Outwith parental control
Child not seen by or given chance to talk to workers
Contested contact and residence issues
Repeat victim
Historical abuse of siblings by carers
Direct or indirect exposure to domestic abuse
Statutory or CP measures in place
Poor school attendance
Young Carer
English is not first language of child
More than 4 children in the family

Risk Indicators Particular to the Parent/Carer
(What I Need from the People Who Look after Me)

Generic Indicators - Parent/Carer Child 1 Child 2 Child 3 Child 4 Notes
Parent under 21 years
Poor parenting skills
Poor understanding of child's needs
Lack of empathy
Unrealistic expectations of child (age & stage)
Unable and/or unwilling to meet child's needs
Poor attachment
Evidence of rejection towards the child
Lack of interest in child
Threats/requests to have the child accommodated
Child perceived as difficult and/or labelled by parent
Prioritises adult needs over child's
Inappropriate rigid attitudes towards child
Partner is not biological parent of child
New partner -background is unknown
Parental resistance/limited engagement
Refuses workers access to child
Parents masking the reality of the situation
No shared understanding of concerns
Child's account minimised/not believed by carer
Physical illness which impairs parenting ability
Mental illness which impairs parenting ability
Substance misuse which impairs parenting ability
Physical disability which impairs parenting ability
High stress levels such as poverty, isolation, loss
Parents' parenting was poor/abusive
Low self-esteem
Poor life skills and problem solving abilities
Poor impulse control
Difficulty with communication
Lack of trust towards workers and others
History of multiple relationships
Carer continually defers to partner for response
History of domestic violence
History of community violence
History of violence /aggression towards workers
Parents in conflict over custody or residence
Inability/unwilling-ness to make use of supports
Breaches of legal orders/agreement - criminal/civil

Risk Indicators Particular to the Child's Family and Wider World
(My Wider World)

Generic Indicators - Wider World Child 1 Child 2 Child 3 Child 4 Notes
Family socially isolated
Absence of social supports/networks
Problems within extended family
Illness within extended family
Conflict within extended family
Substance misuse within extended family
Family - frequent changes of address
Home environment chaotic, unsafe
Concerns about sleeping arrangements
Family history of poor engagement with services
Discriminated within community victim/perpetrator
Culturally inappropriate behaviours
Neighbourhood characterised by offending/violence
Neighbourhood characterised by poverty
Housing quality poor
Lack of community services

What is the information telling me?

Using the Record Sheets practitioners should under each of the risk domains analyse the information gathered asking the key question, "what is this information telling me?".

1. Consider the information gathered and identify the key risk factors for child, parent/carer and wider world. The Record Sheets will highlight the specific areas of concern/risk (your evidence) but you should give an overview of what you consider to be the key issues within the three domains.

2. You then need to form a view as to the level of risk for the child taking account of the interaction between the child, the parent/carer and the child's wider world. What is the information telling you about the level of concern/risk?

Risk Indicators for
Child 1
Child 2
Child 3
Child 4
Parent/Carer
Family and Wider World
What is the information telling me about the level of concern/risk? (Consider frequency, duration, severity, single or accumulative in nature - significance of factors in reaching a conclusion about the level of risk.)

Matrix Related Risk Indicators

A collection of Risk Indicators directly linked to each axis of the Resilience-Vulnerability Matrix which lead practitioners to examine Resilience, Adversity, Vulnerability and Protective Factors. Drawn from research and practice these aim to help highlight potential strength and risk factors within a child/young persons life circumstances. Again, each are directly examined relative to the three dimensions of assessment within the My World Triangle - the child (how I grow and develop), parent/carer (what I need from the people who care for me) and their wider world.

Resilience Indicators

Resilience Risk Indicators Particular to the Child
(How I Grow and Develop)

Risk Indicators - The Child Child 1 Child 2 Child 3 Child 4 Notes
Secure attachment to primary carer
Positive self-esteem
Ability to use adults for support and assistance
Good communication skills
Ability to deal with change
Good problem solving skills
Positive sense of belonging
Positive sense of own identity

Resilience Risk Indicators Particular to the Parent/Carer
(What I Need from the People Who Look after Me)

Resilience Indicators - Parent/Carer Child 1 Child 2 Child 3 Child 4 Notes
Stable, nurturing caregiver
Positive family structures and routines
Stable family environment
Parents have good self-esteem
Consistent quality of care
Good communication within family
Affectionate bonds within the family
Reliable emotional support for child
Good parental supervision

Resilience Risk Indicators Particular to the Child's Family
and Wider World (My Wider World)

Resilience Indicators - Wider World Child 1 Child 2 Child 3 Child 4 Notes
Supportive adults outwith the family
Parents suffering from poor mental health supported
Good community resources (e.g. childcare)
Child has cultural connections in community
Wider family supports (e.g. grandparents)
Community resources combat racism/exclusion

What is the information telling me?

Using the Record Sheets practitioners should under each of the risk domains analyse the information gathered asking the key question, "what is this information telling me?".

1. Consider the information gathered and identify the key risk factors for child, parent/carer and wider world. The Record Sheets will highlight the specific areas of concern/risk (your evidence) but you should give an overview of what you consider to be the key issues within the three domains.

2. You then need to form a view as to the level of risk for the child taking account of the interaction between the child, the parent/carer and the child's wider world. What is the information telling you about the level of concern/risk?

Risk Indicators for
Child 1
Child 2
Child 3
Child 4
Parent/Carer
Family and Wider World
What is the information telling me about the level of concern/risk? (Consider frequency, duration, severity, single or accumulative in nature - significance of factors in reaching a conclusion about the level of risk.)

Adversity Risk Indicators

Adversity Risk Indicators Particular to the Child
(How I Grow and Develop)

Adversity Indicators - The Child Child 1 Child 2 Child 3 Child 4 Notes
No significant or primary attachment figure
No clear boundaries or routines
Child presenting with abusive behaviours
Child's behaviour unstable or unpredictable
Child displays poor coping strategies
Victim of abuse/ neglect
Experience of loss/rejection or bereavement
Repeated changes of placement
More than 4 children in the home

Adversity Risk Indicators Particular to the Parent/Carer
(What I Need from the People Who Look after Me)

Adversity Indicators - Parent/Carer Child 1 Child 2 Child 3 Child 4 Notes
Evidence of unresolved childhood trauma
Living in recurrent crisis
History of substance misuse
Isolated within culture/community
Longstanding mental health problems
History of criminal/offending behaviour
History of violence/conflict

Adversity Risk Indicators Particular to the Child's Family and Wider World (My Wider World)

Adversity Indicators - Wider World Child 1 Child 2 Child 3 Child 4 Notes
History of concerns about wider family
Unable/unwilling to overcome adversity

What is the information telling me?

Using the Record Sheets practitioners should under each of the risk domains analyse the information gathered asking the key question, "what is this information telling me?".

1. Consider the information gathered and identify the key risk factors for child, parent/carer and wider world. The Record Sheets will highlight the specific areas of concern/risk (your evidence) but you should give an overview of what you consider to be the key issues within the three domains.

2. You then need to form a view as to the level of risk for the child taking account of the interaction between the child, the parent/carer and the child's wider world. What is the information telling you about the level of concern/risk?

Risk Indicators for
Child 1
Child 2
Child 3
Child 4
Parent/Carer
Family and Wider World
What is the information telling me about the level of concern/risk? (Consider frequency, duration, severity, single or accumulative in nature - significance of factors in reaching a conclusion about the level of risk.)

Vulnerability Risk Indicators

Vulnerability Risk Indicators Particular to the Child
(How I Grow and Develop)

Vulnerability Indicators - The Child Child 1 Child 2 Child 3 Child 4 Notes
Unwanted or unplanned pregnancy
Difficult birth
Born with substance withdrawal
Child behaviour problems
Child born at time of crisis
Developmental impairment or disabilities
Very young child
Evidence of insecure attachments
Child finds it hard to make and keep friends
Child previously been abused or neglected
Child resembles a hated partner or spouse
Asylum seeking child

Vulnerability Risk Indicators Particular to the Parent/Carer
(What I Need from the People Who Look after Me)

Vulnerability Indicators - Parent/Carer Child 1 Child 2 Child 3 Child 4 Notes
Parental difficulties (e.g. domestic abuse)
Poor partner relationships/ multiple partners
Single parent household
Young parent under 21 years or immature
Unrealistic expectations of the child
History of offending
Chaotic family situation
Parent abused as a child
Asylum seeking

Vulnerability Risk Indicators Particular to the Child's Family and Wider World (My Wider World)

Vulnerability Indicators - Wider World Child 1 Child 2 Child 3 Child 4 Notes
No access to community resources
Subject to racism or other isolating factors
Poor/unsuitable housing
Homelessness
Financial difficulties
Residing detention centre/secure accommodation
Family home overcrowded
Lack of extended family support
Poor support networks

What is the information telling me?

Using the Record Sheets practitioners should under each of the risk domains analyse the information gathered asking the key question, "what is this information telling me?".

1. Consider the information gathered and identify the key risk factors for child, parent/carer and wider world. The Record Sheets will highlight the specific areas of concern/risk (your evidence) but you should give an overview of what you consider to be the key issues within the three domains.

2. You then need to form a view as to the level of risk for the child taking account of the interaction between the child, the parent/carer and the child's wider world. What is the information telling you about the level of concern/risk?

Risk Indicators for
Child 1
Child 2
Child 3
Child 4
Parent/Carer
Family and Wider World
What is the information telling me about the level of concern/risk? (Consider frequency, duration, severity, single or accumulative in nature - significance of factors in reaching a conclusion about the level of risk.)

Protective Indicators

Protective Indicators Particular to the Child
(How I Grow and Develop)

Protective Indicators - The Child Child 1 Child 2 Child 3 Child 4 Notes
Child is in good health
Older child able to keep self safe
Outgoing personality
Child demonstrates good self-control
Bright/intelligent child
Child has high self-esteem
Child has positive relationships in their life
Regular nursery or school attendance
Involvement in out of school activities
The child is aware and supports the Child's Plan
Parents support the Child's Plan

Protective Indicators Particular to the Parent/Carer
(What I Need from the People Who Look after Me)

Protective Indicators - Parent /Carer Child 1 Child 2 Child 3 Child 4 Notes
Parent has good relationship with child
Parent has a positive view of the child
Parents understands the needs of the child
Consistent caring, responsive to the needs of the child
Demonstrates effective parenting
Resilient and a good parental role model
Demonstrates motivation to change
Willing to receive help and accepts Responsibility
Capacity for change - shows insight/initiative
Actively involved in planning work
Open to feedback/ advice/difficult conversations
Good relationship with professionals
Ability to manage behaviour appropriately
Relatively few sources of stress
Strong relationship with own parents/carers
Mental health problems respond to treatment
Overcome own childhood abuse
Positive childhood experiences
No previous history of abuse

Protective Indicators Particular to the Child's Family and Wider World (My Wider World)

Protective Indicators - My Wider World Child 1 Child 2 Child 3 Child 4 Notes
Supportive extended family
Regular, positive contact with extended family
Ability to access /use appropriate services
Strong relationship with own parents
Access to supportive
Family settled in their home
Family live in a safe and secure neighbourhood
Access to resources (health, education etc)
Sufficient income and good physical living standards
No previous professional supports
Shared agency understanding of issues/planning

What is the information telling me?

Using the Record Sheets practitioners should under each of the risk domains analyse the information gathered asking the key question, "what is this information telling me?".

1. Consider the information gathered and identify the key risk factors for child, parent/carer and wider world. The Record Sheets will highlight the specific areas of concern/risk (your evidence) but you should give an overview of what you consider to be the key issues within the three domains.

2. You then need to form a view as to the level of risk for the child taking account of the interaction between the child, the parent/carer and the child's wider world. What is the information telling you about the level of concern/risk?

Risk Indicators for
Child 1
Child 2
Child 3
Child 4
Parent/Carer
Family and Wider World
What is the information telling me about the level of concern/risk? (Consider frequency, duration, severity, single or accumulative in nature - significance of factors in reaching a conclusion about the level of risk.)

Resistance Related Risk Indicators

A collection of Resistance Related Risk Indicators drawn from research and practice that help highlight potential risk factors within a child/young persons life circumstances relative to the three dimensions of assessment within the My World Triangle - the child (how I grow and develop), parent/carer (what I need from the people who care for me) and their wider world.

Resistance Factors

Resistance Related Risk Indicators Particular to the Child
(How I Grow and Develop)

Resistance Indicators - The Child Child 1 Child 2 Child 3 Child 4 Notes
Scapegoated for disclosing family problems
Fearful/unwilling to disclose anything further
Identifies with the perpetrator/strong feelings for abuser
Finds ways of coping with abuse (dissociates)
Child normalises damaging home circumstances

Resistance Related Risk Indicators Particular to the Parent/Carer
(What I Need from the People Who Look after Me)

Resistance Indicators - Parent/Carer Child 1 Child 2 Child 3 Child 4 Notes
Threatening workers (physical/ verbal)
No recognition of the problems
Has a different perception of the problems/risks
Only recognises some professional concerns
No/limited/tokenistic capacity for change
Parent/carer over-whelmed with situation
Gives different information to different workers
Says right things - not backed by behaviour/actions
Past negative relationships with professionals
No/limited aware-ness of impact of own behaviour
Lacks under-standing of what is expected of them
Actively disrupts professional plans and actions

Resistance Related Risk Indicators Particular to the Child's Wider World (My Wider World)

Resistance Indicators - My Wider World Child 1 Child 2 Child 3 Child 4 Notes
Poor family/ community support networks
Changes service driven not driven by parent/carer
Professional splits/disagreements
Cultural issues impact on engagement
Services not available to tackle the problem

What is the information telling me?

Using the Record Sheets practitioners should under each of the risk domains analyse the information gathered asking the key question, "what is this information telling me?".

1. Consider the information gathered and identify the key risk factors for child, parent/carer and wider world. The Record Sheets will highlight the specific areas of concern/risk (your evidence) but you should give an overview of what you consider to be the key issues within the three domains.

2. You then need to form a view as to the level of risk for the child taking account of the interaction between the child, the parent/carer and the child's wider world. What is the information telling you about the level of concern/risk?

Risk Indicators for
Child 1
Child 2
Child 3
Child 4
Parent/Carer
Family and Wider World
What is the information telling me about the level of concern/risk? (Consider frequency, duration, severity, single or accumulative in nature - significance of factors in reaching a conclusion about the level of risk.)