Statistical Bulletin: Planning Series: Affordable Housing Securing Planning Consent Survey 2010/11

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1. Analysis of 2010/11 data

1.1 Main Points

The following key facts emerge from the 2011 survey:

  • An estimated 5,624 affordable housing units were granted planning consent during 2010/11. This figure does not include data from Highland who were unable to provide a survey return this year. With Highland data excluded, so that comparisons can be made, this is a 16% reduction from 2009/10. There is a similar reduction of 15% when the 2010/11 figure is compared to the three year average for units consented during 2007/08, 2008/09 and 2009/10

Table 1: Numbers of Affordable Housing Units Consented, by Planning Authority, 2006-2011

2006/072007/082008/092009/102010/113-year average 1% difference from 2009/10 to 2010/11% difference from 3 year average to 2010/11
Aberdeen City81168439649522448.4%-57.5%
Aberdeenshire413371418277211355-23.8%-40.6%
Angus11072150199480394.7%17.0%
Argyll & Bute7720519326735222-86.9%-84.2%
Cairngorms 2--------
Clackmannanshire114143474121-12.8%92.2%
Dumfries & Galloway118149411151139237-7.9%-41.4%
Dundee City2446113314220112-85.9%-82.1%
East Ayrshire2341275016016112-90.0%-85.8%
East Dunbartonshire12630721251717636.8%126.0%
East Lothian51114189393240232-38.9%3.4%
East Renfrewshire70107160151194-26.7%-88.3%
Edinburgh, City of5414813341,1841,069666-9.7%60.4%
Eilean Siar316471400200.0%-100.0%
Falkirk41587015686128-44.9%-32.8%
Fife307416371187149325-20.3%-54.1%
Glasgow City6601,4181,1531,2741,3971,2829.7%9.0%
Highland 3714585722165-491--
Inverclyde213394847627188-94.3%-85.6%
Loch Lomond & The Trossachs42204646230.0%102.9%
Midlothian262185210331108242-67.4%-55.4%
Moray2189352328432300-88.7%-89.3%
North Ayrshire1071411069113411347.3%18.9%
North Lanarkshire28265288170132174-22.4%-24.3%
Orkney Islands613949721375390.3%156.9%
Perth & Kinross43136377304223272-26.6%-18.1%
Renfrewshire1423151240175146-19.6%
Scottish Borders111872159738133-60.8%-71.4%
Shetland Islands73414466765015.2%51.0%
South Ayrshire105228354183130238.9%41.1%
South Lanarkshire250235115240125-100.0%-100.0%
Stirling70136743210681231.3%31.4%
West Dunbartonshire2181692185810414879.3%-29.9%
West Lothian253300317129329249155.0%32.3%
SCOTLAND 46,4976,5787,8736,8605,6247,104-16.0%-15.0%

1) The average of units consented from 2007/08, 2008/09 and 2009/10.
2) Cairngorms developments have been recorded by overlapping authorities
3) Figures for Highland are from the previous survey and 2010/11 figures are not available.
4) Percentages have been calculated excluding Highland figures

  • Across Scotland, there is a very mixed picture at planning authority level. Scottish Planning Policy states that the planning system should contribute to raising the rate of new house building, including affordable housing, in the right places. In some places the market provides some or all of the affordable housing needed, while in other places it will be necessary to make housing available at a cost below market value to meet an identified need. The most consents granted for affordable housing in 2010/11 were 1,397 units in Glasgow, which represent almost a quarter of the Scotland total (excluding Highland). For Glasgow, this represents an increase of 10% on 2009/10, and 9% on the local three-year average. Edinburgh consented 1,069 units in 2010/11, a 10% decrease from the 2009/10 total, but a 60% increase on the local three-year average. Very few authorities this year exhibited consistency with the levels of consents of previous years, with large changes seen in most areas. Section 1.4 contains further information on affordable housing provision by planning authority.
  • Eleven planning authorities consented less than 50 affordable units in 2010/11. The level of provision does vary across Scotland depending on local markets and identified need.

Table 2: Affordable Housing by Type of Primary Contribution, Scotland Total, 2006-2011 1,2

Entirely Public 4Developer Contributes LandDeveloper Contributes Units 5Developer Sells Discount Units Privately 5Other Type of Developer ContributionSCOTLAND
2006/07Applications1911330713254
Units4,70042154845695,783
Hectares 315762004187
2007/08Applications16226481325274
Units4,470569748871195,993
Hectares 3126162135170
2008/09Applications15630433130290
Units4,8908577361675017,151
Hectares 31392329818217
2009/10Applications16615452535286
Units4,2474881,1901386326,695
Hectares 31253527737232
2010/11Applications1049341824189
Units4,214423717771935,624
Hectares 3148811149279
TotalUnits22,5212,7583,9395141,51431,246
% of Units72%9%13%2%5%100%

1) See Annex for further details on Contribution Types and the recording of Planning Applications
2) So that data is comparable Highland figures have been excluded from all years
3) Figures on hectares may not sum due to rounding. In addition, for most years there are 4% or less of applications where information on hectares is not available however, for 2009/10 data this percentage was 14%.
4) Entirely Public Contribution includes where Registered Social Landlord intends to supply commercially raised funds
5) Developer Contributes Land/Units is where a developer agrees to provide built units to a Registered Social Landlord (or other body) at a price that allows for the provision of affordable housing.

  • 75% (4,214) of those units granted consent in 2010/11 are to be publicly funded ( i.e. no direct contribution from developers). This includes where a not-for-profit Registered Social Landlord ( RSL) intends to supply affordable housing through commercially raised funds. The remaining 25% (1,410) is split between a variety of provision. This includes where a private developer has agreed to contribute land or units for affordable housing to a RSL (or other body) at a price that allows for the provision of affordable housing or where the developer sells discount units privately at a below-market rate (See Table 2 and Chart 1). This compares to the overall ratio of 72% publicly funded units for all years since 2006/07. (This percentage is different from that in Table 16 because Highland figures have been removed in Table 2.)
  • In addition to the 5,624 affordable units (189 applications) granted planning consent a further 308 planning applications (the majority for market-price housing) contained a developer commuted payment for affordable housing in return for planning consent.

1.2 Affordable Housing by Deprivation Decile

  • This section provides analysis on the location of affordable housing granted planning consent relative to The Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation 2009 ( SIMD). This analysis includes all applications where the contribution is affordable units (either for rent, low cost home ownership or discounted sale). It excludes applications where the contribution is a commuted payment only.
  • The SIMD 2009 project identifies small areas of multiple deprivation across all of Scotland. Further information on SIMD 2009 is available in the Annex.
  • Table 3 and Chart 2 show the amount of affordable housing granted planning consent for each deprivation decile, and how this is split between affordable housing contributed solely by the public sector and affordable housing containing a developer contribution.

Chart 2: Affordable Housing Units by Type of Contribution and by Deprivation Decile, 2010/11 1

Chart 2: Affordable Housing Units by Type of Contribution and by Deprivation Decile, 2010/11

1. 2010/11 data does not include figures for Highland.

  • The amount of affordable housing granted planning consent generally decreases as datazones get progressively less deprived. In 2010/11 just over one fifth of all affordable housing granted planning consent lies within the 10% most deprived areas, over 40% in the 20% most deprived areas and 72% of all units consented are within the 50% most deprived areas.
  • The proportion of consented affordable housing that is entirely publicly funded generally decreases as datazones become less deprived. At the same time, the proportion of affordable housing that has some type of developer contribution generally increases. Again this relationship is a little more varied in the mid-range of deprivation deciles, depending on the locations of occasional large developments. The proportion of entirely public units in 2010/11 is 75%, compared to an average of 72% for the five years from 2006/07 (see Table 13).
  • In 2010/11, more than half of all consented affordable housing are situated in the 30% most deprived areas and this is split between 2,735 (93%) entirely publicly funded and 199 (7%) with a developer contribution. Conversely, 8% of all consented affordable housing is situated in the 30% least deprived areas with 153 (32%) entirely publicly funded and 320 (68%) with a developer contribution.

Table 3: Affordable Housing Units by Type of Contribution and by Deprivation Decile, 2010/11 1,2

Deprivation Decile ( SIMD 2009)Entirely Public% of all PublicDeveloper% of all Developer% of All Affordable Units% of Total Decile Public 3% of Total Decile Developer 3
Most Deprived1,18128.0%00.0%21.0%100.0%0.0%
21,05825.1%896.3%20.4%92.2%7.8%
349611.8%1107.8%10.8%81.8%18.2%
43217.6%634.5%6.8%83.6%16.4%
53598.5%37726.7%13.1%48.8%51.2%
63017.1%654.6%6.5%82.2%17.8%
73458.2%38627.4%13.0%47.2%52.8%
8962.3%20414.5%5.3%32.0%68.0%
9441.0%1087.7%2.7%28.9%71.1%
Least Deprived130.3%80.6%0.4%61.9%38.1%
SCOTLAND4,214100.0%1,410100.0%100.0%74.9%25.1%

1) Analysis uses the results of the SIMD 2009 General Report, updated in July 2010
2) 2010/11 data does not include figures for Highland
3) As a percentage of the total affordable units granted planning consent within Decile

1.3 Affordable Housing by Urban-Rural Classification

  • Table 4 and Chart 3 show a breakdown of affordable housing granted planning consent during 2010/11 by urban/rural classification. More information on the Scottish Government's urban rural classification system is available in the Annex.
  • Almost half (2,738 units) of affordable housing units granted planning consent in 2010/11 are situated within 'large urban areas'. A further quarter (1,392 units) are within 'other urban areas'. 1,048 units (19%) are within 'accessible rural' and 'remote rural' areas. For comparison, almost 40% of Scotland's population live in 'large urban areas', over 30% live in 'other urban areas' and 18% live in 'accessible rural' and 'remote rural' areas [1]. The location of affordable housing is dependent on local housing markets and identified need for affordable housing.
  • Proportionally more of the proposed entirely publicly funded units (82%) are within large or other urban areas in 2010/11, compared to 47% of proposed units with a developer contribution.

Chart 3: Affordable Housing Units by Type of Contribution and by Urban/Rural Classification, 2010/11 1

Chart 3: Affordable Housing Units by Type of Contribution and by Urban/Rural Classification, 2010/11

1. 2010/11 data does not include figures for Highland.

  • Units funded entirely by public means are in the majority within each classification irrespective of its urban/rural classification, except in the case of 'accessible small towns' and 'accessible rural' settlements, where only 40% and 45% respectively of consented units are publicly funded.

Table 4: Affordable Housing Units by Type of Contribution and by Urban/Rural Classification, 2010/11 1,2

Urban/Rural ClassificationEntirely Public% of all PublicDeveloper% of all Developer% of All Affordable Units% of Total Area Public3% of Total Area Developer 3
Large Urban Areas2,43357.7%30521.6%48.7%88.9%11.1%
Other Urban Areas1,03124.5%36125.6%24.8%74.1%25.9%
Accessible Small Towns1102.6%16211.5%4.8%40.4%59.6%
Remote Small Towns1483.5%261.8%3.1%85.1%14.9%
Accessible Rural3438.1%41429.4%13.5%45.3%54.7%
Remote Rural1493.5%14210.1%5.2%51.2%48.8%
SCOTLAND4,214100.0%1,410100.0%100.0%74.9%25.1%

1) Analysis uses the results of the Scottish Government Urban Rural Classification System (2009-2010)
2) 2010/11 data does not include figures for Highland
3) As a percentage of the total affordable units granted Planning consent within Area

1.4 Affordable Housing by Tenure and Planning Authority

  • This section provides a breakdown of affordable housing granted planning consent by tenure and planning authority. The tenure type depends on the nature of the affordable housing required, as set out in the local development plan.
  • Table 5 shows the tenure breakdown of affordable housing granted planning consent. 51% (2,847 units) of all affordable housing granted planning consent during 2010/11 is for rent by a RSL. This accounts for 52% of affordable housing entirely publicly funded and 48% of affordable housing with a developer contribution.

Table 5: Affordable Housing Units by Type of Contribution and by Tenure, 2010/11 1

Affordable Housing TenureEntirely Public% of all PublicDeveloper% of all Developer% of All Affordable Units% of Total Tenure Public 2% of Total Tenure Developer 2
Registered Social Landlord - Rent2,17751.7%67047.5%50.6%76.5%23.5%
Registered Social Landlord - Low Cost Home Ownership2997.1%916.5%6.9%76.7%23.3%
Local Authority - Rent1,14427.1%1047.4%22.2%91.7%8.3%
Developer Sells at Discount Price to Private Individuals90.2%1359.6%2.6%6.3%100.0%
Other Type of Affordable10.0%533.8%1.0%1.9%98.1%
Unknown58413.9%35725.3%16.7%62.1%37.9%
SCOTLAND4,214100.0%1,410100.0%100.0%74.9%25.1%

1) 2010/11 data does not include figures for Highland
2) As a percentage of the total affordable units granted planning consent for tenure

  • 7% (390 units) of all affordable housing granted planning consent are for low cost homeownership by a RSL. This accounts for 7% of affordable housing entirely publicly funded and 6% of affordable housing with a developer contribution respectively. 23% of all low-cost home ownership units granted planning consent involve a developer contribution, compared with 24% of all consented units for social rent by a RSL, and 8% of local authority rental units in 2010/11.
  • 22% (1,248 units) of all affordable housing granted planning consent during 2010/11 are for rent by the local authority. Edinburgh accounted for 494 units, West Lothian 241, South Ayrshire 68, Midlothian 60, North Lanarkshire 59, Fife 54, and no other authority accounted for more than 50 units for rent by the local authority.
  • 17% of all affordable units granted planning consent during 2010/11 currently have an unknown tenure type (and this accounts for 25% of all units provided by way of developer contribution). This may be due to proposed developments not being at an advanced enough stage yet for planning authorities to know final decisions on tenure (some planning applications will not distinguish tenure types beyond affordable status). These unknown units should be re-classified into other tenure types as events develop (and this will be recorded in future publications).
  • Table 6 shows a breakdown of planning consents for affordable housing during 2010/11 by planning authority. This also shows what type of contribution is being made towards affordable housing by planning authority. Some planning authorities also agree commuted payments with developers for affordable housing, information on this is available in Section 1.5. The variation in level and types of contribution across the local authorities reflects the local housing market and identified need for affordable housing.

Table 6: Affordable Housing Units by Type of Contribution and by Planning Authority, 2010/11 1

Entirely Public 2Developer Contributes Land 3Developer Contributes Units 3Developer sells discount units PrivatelyOther Type of Developer ContributionTotal
Units% of PA's UnitsUnits% of PA's UnitsUnits% of PA's UnitsUnits% of PA's UnitsUnits% of PA's UnitsUnits
Aberdeen City2021.1%00.0%6164.2%1414.7%00.0%95
Aberdeenshire2913.7%00.0%14066.4%4219.9%00.0%211
Angus2324.5%00.0%6266.0%99.6%00.0%94
Argyll & Bute2571.4%00.0%00.0%00.0%1028.6%35
Cairngorms 4-----------
Clackmannanshire00.0%00.0%41100.0%00.0%00.0%41
Dumfries & Galloway3424.5%00.0%00.0%00.0%10575.5%139
Dundee City20100.0%00.0%00.0%00.0%00.0%20
East Ayrshire16100.0%00.0%00.0%00.0%00.0%16
East Dunbartonshire171100.0%00.0%00.0%00.0%00.0%171
East Lothian240100.0%00.0%00.0%00.0%00.0%240
East Renfrewshire00.0%00.0%11100.0%00.0%00.0%11
Edinburgh, City of79474.3%12511.7%15014.0%00.0%00.0%1,069
Eilean Siar0-0-0-0-0--
Falkirk3034.9%2832.6%2832.6%00.0%00.0%86
Fife13791.9%00.0%00.0%42.7%85.4%149
Glasgow City1,397100.0%00.0%00.0%00.0%00.0%1,397
Highland5-----------
Inverclyde27100.0%00.0%00.0%00.0%00.0%27
Loch Lomond & The Trossachs00.0%00.0%2860.9%48.7%1430.4%46
Midlothian8881.5%00.0%00.0%00.0%2018.5%108
Moray00.0%00.0%32100.0%00.0%00.0%32
North Ayrshire134100.0%00.0%00.0%00.0%00.0%134
North Lanarkshire132100.0%00.0%00.0%00.0%00.0%132
Orkney Islands137100.0%00.0%00.0%00.0%00.0%137
Perth & Kinross8035.9%00.0%14163.2%00.0%20.9%223
Renfrewshire175100.0%00.0%00.0%00.0%00.0%175
Scottish Borders00.0%00.0%00.0%410.5%3489.5%38
Shetland Islands76100.0%00.0%00.0%00.0%00.0%76
South Ayrshire4223.0%11864.5%2312.6%00.0%00.0%183
South Lanarkshire0-0-0-0-0--
Stirling4542.5%6157.5%00.0%00.0%00.0%106
West Dunbartonshire1312.5%9187.5%00.0%00.0%00.0%104
West Lothian329100.0%00.0%00.0%00.0%00.0%329
SCOTLAND4,21474.9%4237.5%71712.7%771.4%1933.4%5,624

1) See Annex for further details on Contribution Types and the recording of Planning Applications
2) Entirely Public Contribution includes where Registered Social Landlord intends to supply commercially raised funds
3) Developer Contributes Land/Units is where a developer agrees to provide Land/built units to a Registered Social Landlord (or other body) at a price that allows for the provision of affordable housing.
4) Cairngorms developments have been recorded by overlapping authorities
5) 2010/11 data does not include figures for Highland

  • It can be seen that the highest number of affordable housing units granted consent during the survey reporting period were in Glasgow City (1,397 units), followed by Edinburgh (1,069 units), West Lothian (329 units), East Lothian (240 units), Perth & Kinross (223 units) and Aberdeenshire (211 units). Collectively these 6 planning authorities account for 62% of all affordable housing units granted planning consent during 2010/11.
  • Within 12 planning authorities, 100 per cent of 2010/11 consented affordable units are to be entirely publicly funded. This includes a mixture of contrasting authorities such as Glasgow City, Inverclyde, the Shetland Islands and West Lothian.
  • In terms of contributed units, those planning authorities who granted consent to the largest number of affordable housing units with a developer contribution were Edinburgh (275 units), Aberdeenshire (182 units), Perth & Kinross (143 units) and South Ayrshire (141 units). Collectively these 4 planning authorities account for 53% of all affordable housing granted consent (with a developer contribution) during 2010/11.
  • Developers agreeing to sell units to private individuals at below market rate (as part of Planning Agreements) remain relatively rare. Only 77 units were granted planning consent during 2010/11 under this scenario, 42 being in Aberdeenshire.
  • 'Other Type of Developer Contribution' refers to various types of contribution which cannot presently be categorised under one of the other headings. Quite often this is because although affordable units have been granted planning consent (either full or outline), decisions on final contribution types have not yet been reached. This currently accounts for 3% (193 units) of all affordable housing granted planning consent during 2010/11.

1.5 Commuted Payments for Affordable Housing

  • The 2010/11 survey reported 255 applications for new housing, where the sole agreed contribution towards affordable housing provision was a commuted payment. Table 7 shows a breakdown of those consented applications, by the number of market units contained within them.

Table 7: Applications where the only Affordable Housing Contribution is a Commuted Payment, 2010/11 1,2,3

Total Units in ApplicationNumber of Applications% of Applications
1 unit13653.3%
2 to 5 units7931.0%
6 to 10 units228.6%
11 to 20 units155.9%
21 to 50 units20.8%
Over 50 units10.4%
Total Number of Applications255100.0%

1) There were a further 51 applications for non-housing developments where the only Affordable Housing Contribution was a Commuted Payment.
2) 2 further applications were excluded from this table as numbers of units are not yet known
3) 2010/11 data does not include figures for Highland

  • Table 7 shows that 84% of all market housing applications, for which only a commuted payment was made towards affordable housing provision, are no larger than 5 units in size. There was only one application for a development of over 50 units in size.
  • Of the 255 planning applications granted consent in Table 7, 180 were from Aberdeenshire, 30 were from Scottish Borders, 24 in Fife, and the remaining 21 were spread across 8 other planning authorities.

Chart 4: Applications where the only Affordable Housing Contribution is a Commuted Payment, 2010/11 1

Chart 4: Applications where the only Affordable Housing Contribution is a Commuted Payment, 2010/11

1. 2010/11 data does not include figures for Highland.

  • Table 8 shows information by planning authority on the amount of commuted payments dealt with for affordable housing provision during 2010/11.
  • Apart from Highland, planning authorities collectively held £6,523,480 in received commuted payment contributions for affordable housing at the start of the financial year. During the year they received a further £1,528,492 on applications where the granting of consent included a commuted payment. They spent £1,626,511 on affordable housing provision and concluded with £6,425,462 at the end of the 2010/11 financial year.
  • Aberdeenshire held the greatest value of centrally held commuted payments for affordable housing provision at the end of the 2010/11 financial year (£3,050,523). This was followed by Perth & Kinross (£1,296,618). Aberdeenshire spent most in 2010/11 (£783,123)
  • The majority of planning authorities (19) did not receive or spend any commuted payments for affordable housing during 2010/11 (and held no commuted payments throughout this period). Cairngorms is not counted in this total due to the coverage of its neighbours.
  • Details of all payments since 2006/07 are found in Table 11.

Table 8: Commuted Payments for Affordable Housing by Planning Authority, 2010/11 1

Planning AuthorityCommuted Payments Agreed 2010/11On Hand Start of 2010/11Received 2010/11Spent 2010/11No Longer Available 2010/11On Hand at end of 2010/11
Aberdeen City 2£25,000£880,767£147,500£0£0£1,028,267
Aberdeenshire£456,929£3,146,391£687,255£783,123£0£3,050,523
Angus£0£97,500£21,000£75,000£0£43,500
Argyll & Bute£0£0£0£0£0£0
Cairngorms 3------
Clackmannanshire£0£0£0£0£0£0
Dumfries & Galloway£0£0£0£0£0£0
Dundee City£0£0£0£0£0£0
East Ayrshire£0£0£0£0£0£0
East Dunbartonshire£0£0£0£0£0£0
East Lothian£0£35,335£0£3,955£0£31,380
East Renfrewshire£0£269,267£126,407£45,484£0£350,191
Edinburgh, City of£162,000£0£162,000£162,000£0£0
Eilean Siar£0£0£0£0£0£0
Falkirk£0£0£0£0£0£0
Fife£0£209,107£138,425£154,521£0£193,011
Glasgow City£0£0£0£0£0£0
Highland 4------
Inverclyde£0£0£0£0£0£0
Loch Lomond & The Trossachs £0£0£0£0£0£0
Midlothian£0£0£0£0£0£0
Moray£0£9,325£0£0£0£9,325
North Ayrshire£0£0£0£0£0£0
North Lanarkshire£0£13,840£0£2,434£0£11,406
Orkney Islands£0£0£0£0£0£0
Perth & Kinross£642,375£1,131,692£206,625£41,700£0£1,296,618
Renfrewshire£0£0£0£0£0£0
Scottish Borders 2£190,216£355,601£39,280£187,744£0£207,137
Shetland Islands£0£0£0£0£0£0
South Ayrshire£0£347,477£0£170,551£0£176,926
South Lanarkshire£0£0£0£0£0£0
Stirling£0£0£0£0£0£0
West Dunbartonshire£0£0£0£0£0£0
West Lothian£0£27,178£0£0£0£27,178
SCOTLAND 5£1,476,520£6,523,480£1,528,492£1,626,511£0£6,425,462

1) Figures from some authorities may include amounts from other sources such as income from 2nd homes council tax
2) Aberdeen City and Scottish Borders revised their figures for the total amount on hand at the start of 2010/11
3) Cairngorms developments have been recorded by overlapping authorities
4) Highland have not provided this information for 2010/12
5) Scotland totals do not include Highland figures.

1.6 Other Relevant Sources

Housing Statistics for Scotland can be found through the following link ( http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2011/08/30084023/0).

This contains information on:

  • new build starts and completions, including those for the social sector;
  • statistics on the number of affordable homes approved through AHIP activity;
  • statistics on housing lists for social sector housing.

Statistics on new house building in the other UK nations can be found through the following link to the Department for Communities and Local Government website:
http://www.communities.gov.uk/housing/housingresearch/housingstatistics/housingstatisticsby/housebuilding/livetables/

Figures on social sector lettings and other statistics for the social sector as a whole can be found on the Scottish Government website through the following link:
http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/Statistics/Browse/Housing-Regeneration/HSfS/socialhousing

Scottish Planning Policy sets out the Government's planning policy for housing, including affordable housing and housing land audits:
http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2010/02/03132605/0

Further information on how the planning system supports the Government's commitment to increase the supply of affordable housing is set out in Planning Advice Notice 2/2010: Affordable Housing and Housing Land Audits:
http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2010/08/31111624/0