CHAPTER 3: Developing a Target Operating Model
3.1 A Target Operating Model ( TOM) has been developed in partnership with professional leads from across the police service to create an optimal picture of how the police service could organise its people, services, processes, applications and information to deliver its desired outcomes. This approach aids evaluation of the short-listed options by helping us to understand in greater detail the structure of each option and its associated operating model, i.e. how an enhanced eight-force, regional or single police service might respond. Its primary purpose is to develop an optimum model for service delivery and facilitate communication with internal and external stakeholders.
3.2 The TOM framework captures the 'as-is' situation and articulates a 'to-be' state, but is not a blueprint for change. It facilitates an informed debate on the costs, benefits and risks associated with each reform option. This chapter defines the current and target operating models for policing in Scotland. Chapter 4 considers the TOM under the three reform options.
3.3 The TOM approach provides a visual representation of an organisation that allows a view across people, processes and technology and articulates how these fit together to deliver outcomes. Applying this approach has a number of advantages in that it:
- provides a clear and diagrammatic representation of current and redesigned operations;
- describes who would do what, where and how;
- sets a top level framework for design and change; and
- provides a clear communication method across an organisation to aid an understanding of where roles fit and contribute towards the future model.
Methodology and Process
3.4 In order to understand in greater detail the structure of each option for reform and their associated operating models, the Target Operating Model approach was applied to the information compiled by professional functional leads as part of the Sustainable Policing Project. This built on the work to develop the initial options appraisal (see paragraph 4.6 below). As this was undertaken by service experts, it reflects a professional view of the best way to deliver the full range of policing functions, irrespective of structure.
3.5 The process of developing new operating models first involved identifying all the principal elements of each policing function, including command, management, deployment, staffing and resourcing, and then allocating them to a national, sub-national (regional), force or local level, in line with the professional leads' assessment of what is required to ensure optimal delivery. The levels were defined as follows:
- national - targeting service delivery at a national level (this could involve the national co-ordination of specific functions within a multi-force model);
- sub-national - targeting service delivery across more than one force boundary (as they are currently defined);
- force - targeting service delivery at a force level; and
- local - targeting service delivery in local policing areas.
3.6 The current operating model for the Scottish Police Service is represented in Figure 3.1. This illustrates how policing functions are currently delivered across Scotland and shows a concentration of almost all their constituent elements at force level. It provides the baseline from which to identify and measure the variation and change that could be achieved by application of the Target Operating Model ( TOM).
3.7 After creating this picture of how things are currently, new functional operating models were built up and aggregated into an overall TOM that represents the optimal way to deliver key policing functions in Scotland. Figure 3.2 illustrates the TOM - a professional view of the most effective solution for these functions, regardless of structure.
3.8 The TOM was then adapted to achieve best fit with the three short-listed options to evaluate how well each option could deliver the TOM.
Figure 3.1 Current Operating Model
Figure 3.2 Target Operating Model
Key issues relating to the Target Operating Model
3.9 The main themes that emerged from the professional leads' review of policing functions are outlined below and reflected in the variation that exists between the current operating model and the TOM. The most evident difference is that the elements of almost every function move from a force level and are redistributed either to national delivery or to the local level.
3.10 A major theme from stakeholder engagement and consultation is the emphasis on protecting local policing. This is supported and reinforced by the arrangements recommended within the TOM for Local Policing. Here, successful local policing will be dependant upon the delegation of appropriate responsibility, authority and accountability down to the local level to facilitate the provision of support and participation in local partnerships and collaborations such as the Single Outcome Agreements ( SOAs). A flexible approach across local policing area boundaries would also help demand management. All three structural reform options are underpinned by this local policing model, with local policing mapped against the 32 current local authority boundaries.
3.11 In the existing arrangements for local policing, there is a broad range in the scale of resources allocated to divisions. At present, the number of officers within a single division ranges from around 123 officers in the smallest to over 1300 officers in the largest. The upper quartile of this range provides for a division of 760 officers. This is roughly equivalent to the single division that operates within Fife Constabulary.
3.12 Using this as a representative size of division, a professional judgement was applied to propose levels of senior management cover required to provide adequate resilience (especially at superintendent level) to address tactical level activity such as firearms incidents and those involving, for example, MAPPA and RIPA/ RIPSA. The result is that the TOM assumes for the basis of this analysis a local policing model of 15 divisions and 32 local policing units - the latter aligning with local authority areas.
3.13 Within this model, command for the 32 local policing units would depend on a number of factors such as population and crime/incident levels, and might vary between Inspector and Superintendent. The focus of the TOM is to drive effectiveness and efficiency within the management structure for local policing and to optimise the availability of officers for visible front-line duties.
3.14 Further detailed analysis of relevant data and information factors is required before a definitive position on command arrangements and resource numbers can be stated. However, a rationalisation to a 15-division model is only achievable in the absence of the current constraints created by force boundaries. In a multi-force model, the local policing framework would have to be adjusted accordingly.
3.15 The TOM assumes a shift of emphasis from the current force-level leadership to national leadership for a range of operational policing functions. In most cases, national consolidation and leadership is underpinned by an appropriate regional distribution of resource and assets to enable effective local response and some limited retention of capability at the local level.
3.16 Effective delivery of these national functions would be achieved only if national policy, leadership and coordination are put in place. While delivery of these functions could theoretically be achieved through collaborative arrangements, the scope and scale of the functions is very significant and would require complex formal and informal arrangements to ensure equity, effectiveness, appropriate resourcing and long-term sustainability. Such arrangements would require significant collaborative management and leadership, and could provide a distraction from local policing. Based on learning from within Scottish policing and the wider policing sector, it is considered that these national functions can most effectively be established, managed, resourced and sustained through national organisations, rather than through collaborative arrangements.
3.17 On this basis, each of the structural models for police reform assume a single body responsible for the delivery of national operational policing, which would include the current remit of the SCDEA.
National Support Functions
3.18 Looking at the approach to efficiency under the current operating model, support functions within forces were found to be bearing the most immediate and largest degree of rationalisation and downsizing. However, the development of new operating models for support services can be shown to mitigate the effect of this approach. In discussion with service experts, there was broad agreement that in developing options for change, significant benefit could be achieved by exploiting the synergies that exist across the forces to develop a single or shared service approach to the provision of all support functions.
3.19 In line with the TOM, all three structural options developed include consolidated back office support functions. The degree of consolidation varies across the options in line with specific statutory, legislative, regulatory and governance requirements; for example, multiple-force options will require some retention of resource and capability at force level.
3.20 For multi-force options, it is assumed that the full range of back office functions is supplied nationally. In the single service option, there is the potential to rationalise further structure (governance and management) and process (customer - supplier arrangements) through the re-integration of SPSA within the single service. This approach towards full rationalisation and consolidation within each option also ensures that it is the most efficient variant of each option that is evaluated (see Chapter 4).