Local Area Labour Markets in Scotland Statistics from the Annual Population Survey 2010

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Chapter 5: Equalities

Note: The APS can be used to provide information on many of the equalities groups. However, at present, although data on sexual orientation is gathered by the APS, it is only reported in the IHS. See Annex D for further information.

How do equality groups perform in the labour market?

Gender

Trends at National Level

Note: Data from the following section (national level) is taken from the Labour Force Survey ( LFS). This provides a more current picture of labour market trends in Scotland. At the time of publication, the latest LFS data available was for March-May 2011. The latest data and analysis (updated on a monthly basis) is available at:

http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/Statistics/Browse/Labour-Market/Labour-Market-Briefing/

Chart 5.1 shows how employment rates for males and females in Scotland have performed compared to those in the UK.

Over the year to March - May 2011:

  • Employment rates in Scotland for those aged 16-64 have risen by 1.5 percentage points to 71.7%.
    • This rise was driven by an increase in the male employment rate (up 2.1 percentage points to 75.6%).
    • The rate for females was up 0.9 percentage points over the year, to 67.9%.

Male employment rates in Scotland had been generally higher than those at UK level during 2007 and 2008, but fell sharply between mid-2009 and the start of 2010, and have remained lower than the UK male employment rate since. However, recent data indicates that this gap is closing, and as of March-May 2011, the employment rate for Scottish males was only 0.3 percentage points below the UK male employment rate.

In contrast, female employment rates in Scotland have been consistently higher than those at UK level since mid-2001. Female employment rates in Scotland did not fall as sharply as male employment rates during the recession, and recovered faster than their male counterparts.

Chart 5.2 shows how the gap between male and female employment rates has changed in Scotland and the UK between 2004 and 2011. In the UK, the gap between male and female employment rates reduced from just over 12 percentage points before the recession, to just over 9 percentage points at the start of 2010, but started to increase again as the slow recovery continued. Scotland saw a similar effect, although delayed by around 9 months to a year; the employment rate gap between males and females in Scotland had been between 9 to 10 percentage points until the third quarter of 2009, after which the gap decreased to around 5.5 percentage points, before increasing again. As of March-May 2011 the gap between male and female employment rates in Scotland stood at 7.7 percentage points compared to 10.4 in the UK as a whole.

The dip seen at both UK and Scotland levels appear to have been caused by a rapid reduction in male employment rates (which may be due to reductions in male dominated industries such as construction), rather than any significant increases in female employment rates. The gap has increased again, as male employment rates have started to increase at a faster rate than female employment rates from September-November 2010.

Chart 5.1: Employment rate by gender (16-64), Scotland, UK, 2004-2011
Seasonally Adjusted

Chart 5.1: Employment rate by gender (16-64), Scotland, UK, 2004-2011 Seasonally Adjusted

Source: Labour Force Survey, ONS

Chart 5.2: Gap between male and female employment rates (16-64), Scotland, UK, 2004-2011
Seasonally Adjusted

Chart 5.2: Gap between male and female employment rates (16-64), Scotland, UK, 2004-2011 Seasonally Adjusted

Source: Labour Force Survey, ONS

Note: Gap = male employment rate - female employment rate for each geography.

Chart 5.3 shows how unemployment rates for males and females in Scotland have performed compared to those in the UK.

Over the year to March-May 2011:

  • ILO unemployment rates in Scotland for those aged 16 and over have decreased by 0.7 percentage points.
    • This fall was driven by a decrease in male unemployment (down 1.5 percentage points to 8.4%).
    • The rate for females rose over the year by 0.2 percentage points to 6.7%.

Male unemployment rates in Scotland have been higher than those at UK level since October-December 2009. However, since October-December 2010, the gap between male unemployment rates in Scotland and the UK has been closing, and as of March-May 2011, the unemployment rate for Scottish males is only 0.1 percentage points higher than the corresponding UK rate.

Female unemployment rates in Scotland had been lower than those at UK level for most of the period since early 2006, but peaked above the UK rate for a short period during mid 2010. Since October-December 2010, the female unemployment rate has been lower than the UK equivalent (0.3 percentage points lower as of March-May 2011).

Chart 5.3: Unemployment rate by gender (16+), Scotland, UK, 2004-2011
Seasonally Adjusted

Chart 5.3: Unemployment rate by gender (16+), Scotland, UK, 2004-2011 Seasonally Adjusted

Source: Labour Force Survey, ONS

Chart 5.4 shows the trend for economic inactivity rates for males and females age 16-64 in Scotland compared to those in the UK.

Over the year to March-May 2011:

  • Inactivity rates in Scotland have decreased by 1.1 percentage points.
    • Both male and female inactivity rates dropped by similar amounts over this period; the male rate dropped by 1.0 percentage points to 17.3%, while the female rate dropped by 1.2 percentage points to 27.2%.

Male inactivity rates in Scotland had been similar to their UK equivalents between mid-2004 and the end of 2009, but rose more quickly than in the rest of the UK during early 2010. The male inactivity rate in Scotland has been higher than the UK rate since December-February 2010, although data for March - May 2011 indicates that the gap has closed to 0.3 percentage points.

Female rates of economic inactivity in Scotland have been consistently lower than their equivalents at UK level since March-May 2001, although they increased at the start of the recession. More recently, the inactivity rate has returned to levels similar to those seen before the recession. Female inactivity rates in Scotland during March-May 2011 were 2.3 percentage points lower than across the UK.

The gap between male and female inactivity rates in the UK had been around 13.5 percentage points before the recession, but the gap reduced to around 12.0 percentage points by the start of 2010, before increasing slightly again to around 12.5 percentage points from the second quarter of 2010 through to March-May 2011.

In Scotland, the gap between male and female inactivity rates was around 12 percentage points up to the third quarter of 2009, after which it reduced to 8 percentage points between the end of 2010 and the first quarter of 2011. The gap appears to be widening again, with data for March-May 2011 indicating the gap was 9.8 percentage points.

Chart 5.4: Inactivity rate by gender (16-64), Scotland, UK, 2004-2011
Seasonally Adjusted

Chart 5.4: Inactivity rate by gender (16-64), Scotland, UK, 2004-2011 Seasonally Adjusted

Source: Labour Force Survey, ONS

Trends at Local Authority Level

Note: The following section uses data from the APS. This relates to the period Jan-Dec 2010, and therefore reflects the situation during a period when Scotland's employment rate had dropped below the UK's for the majority of the year. This will be different to that seen at national level (in the section above) using LFS data.

In 2010, the employment rate for men aged 16-64 was 74.8%, down 1.2 percentage points on the previous year. The employment rate for women aged 16-64 in 2010 was 67.4%, a fall of 0.6 percentage points over the year. Chart 5.5 and Chart 5.6 show how male and female employment rates have changed over the year across the different local authorities.

  • The three local authorities with the highest male employment rates in 2010 were: Shetland Islands (88.2%), Aberdeenshire (87.6%) and Orkney Islands (87.1%).
  • Ten Local Authorities saw increases in their male employment rates over the year.
    • Clackmannanshire, Inverclyde Eilean Siar and East Ayrshire saw the largest increases over the year (with increases of 5.2, 5.1, 2.3 and 2.3 percentage points respectively).
  • For female employment rates, the three authorities with the highest rates were: Shetland Islands (82.8%), Highland (74.8%) and Aberdeenshire (74.7%).
  • Thirteen Local Authorities saw increases in their female employment rates over the year.
    • Clackmannanshire, East Ayrshire and Dundee City saw the largest increases over the year (with increases of 8.2, 4.2 and 3.8 percentage points respectively).

The relationship between the change in employment rates for males and females at local authority level is not strong.

  • Of the 10 authorities showing increases in male employment rates, 6 also showed increases for female employment rates (these include Clackmannanshire, Inverclyde and East Ayrshire); with the remaining 4 showing decreases (these include Glasgow City and Perth and Kinross).
  • Six local authorities showed decreases in their male employment rates of between 1.4 and 2.5 percentage points, but experienced increases in their female employment rates of between 0.4 and 3.9 percentage points (including Aberdeenshire, Aberdeen City and Dundee City).
  • Dumfries and Galloway had one of the largest decreases in male unemployment over the year (down 4.5 percentage points), but had a 0.6 percentage point increase in female employment rate.

In general, it would appear that although the gap, at Scotland level, between male and female employment rates has closed by 0.6 percentage points over the year, this is more due to improved performance is some areas rather than a uniform improvement across all local authorities.

Employment levels and rates by gender and age for 2004 to 2010 are provided in the web tables and via Scottish Neighbourhood Statistics.

Chart 5.5: Male employment rates by local authority, Scotland, Change on year (2009-2010)

Chart 5.5: Male employment rates by local authority, Scotland, Change on year (2009-2010)

Source: Annual Population Survey, Jan-Dec

Chart 5.6: Female employment rates by local authority, Scotland, Change on year (2009-2010)

Chart 5.6: Female employment rates by local authority, Scotland, Change on year (2009-2010)

Source: Annual Population Survey, Jan-Dec

Age

The preferred source for employment, unemployment and inactivity statistics by age group for Scotland (and sub-national level) is the Annual Population Survey. Some age analysis is possible using data from the LFS; however, due to the size of the sub-groups, the estimates are more volatile and less reliable than their APS equivalents (and are below reliability thresholds at local authority level).

Note: The following section uses data from the APS.

Between 2009 and 2010, the employment rates for all age groups have dropped, except those aged 65+. The largest decreases were seen by the 16-24 and the 25-34 age groups, which saw 2.2 and 1.6 percentage point decreases, respectively. Chart 5.7 shows the employment rate by age group across Scotland from 2004 to 2010. This shows that the employment rate for the 16-24 age group has dropped since 2005, with the drop becoming more pronounced between 2007 and 2010, as a result of the recession and its continued impact after the start of the recovery.

Employment rates for the over 65 group are not shown on this chart as they are significantly lower than those for the other groups (at between 5 and 7.5%).

Unemployment rates also continued to increase for all age groups over the year, except for those aged 50-64 (which saw 0.1 percentage point decrease). The largest increases were seen by the 16-24 age group, which was up 1.8 percentage points to 18.6%, and the 25-34 age group, which was up 1.7 percentage points to 8.9%. However it is important to note that (as show in Chapter 2) the most recent headline LFS data indicates that unemployment rates in Scotland are decreasing.

The highest increases in inactivity rates over the year were seen by the 16-24 and 50-64 age groups. Those aged 16-24 saw their inactivity rate increase by 1.1 percentage points over the year, to 31.7%, while those aged 50-64 saw an increase of 0.5 percentage pints to 33.1% All other groups saw small increases or decreases (+/-0.1 percentage point). Rises in the 16-24 group are being driven by increases in the number of students who are not active in the labour market, while the increases in the 50-64 group are down to increases in the number of retired people in this group.

Table 5.1 shows employment rate by age by local authority. The employment rates for people aged 16-24 vary greatly across local authorities; from 76.4% of the population in the Shetland Islands to 44.1% of the population in Stirling.

Chart 5.7: Employment rate by age-group, Scotland, 2004-2010

Chart 5.7: Employment rate by age-group, Scotland, 2004-2010

Source: Annual Population Survey, Jan-Dec

Table 5.1: Employment rates and levels by age and local authority, Scotland, 2010

Geography
(Residence Based)
All aged 16 & over16-6416-2425-3435-4950-6465+
RateLevelRateLevelRateLevelRateLevelRateLevelRateLevelRateLevel
Scotland58.2%2,468,60071.0%2,412,30055.6%339,70077.9%507,70081.5%915,80064.1%649,1006.7%56,300
Local Authority Area
Aberdeen City65.9%118,60077.9%115,70072.5%21,30084.3%30,20082.3%35,900****
Aberdeenshire67.1%131,40081.2%127,90071.1%17,40083.2%20,00090.9%53,00073.9%37,5009.2%3,500
Angus57.1%50,90073.0%49,40051.6%5,50081.0%8,20081.6%19,80070.1%16,0006.9%1,500
Argyll & Bute55.9%40,10072.5%38,10057.2%4,60080.1%5,60084.2%15,10065.3%12,80010.3%2,000
Clackmannanshire62.9%25,50076.1%25,00070.4%3,30079.2%5,40090.0%10,000****
Dumfries and Galloway55.8%68,10072.4%65,40057.7%8,10084.6%10,70084.9%25,30062.8%21,3008.6%2,700
Dundee City56.1%66,60069.3%65,50058.2%12,70074.4%14,70080.9%21,700****
East Ayrshire56.2%55,00070.3%54,30058.4%8,00078.1%10,00080.2%20,500****
East Dunbartonshire58.5%49,60073.9%48,60052.2%6,10078.7%7,30086.7%20,100****
East Lothian57.4%44,70071.0%43,10048.8%5,10076.0%6,60086.0%19,60063.0%11,8009.2%1,600
East Renfrewshire57.7%41,00071.6%39,90047.8%4,80080.7%6,20085.4%16,60066.2%12,4006.7%1,000
Edinburgh, City of60.0%243,20070.4%238,60049.9%33,20079.5%73,30081.6%80,600****
Eilean Siar53.2%11,40068.7%10,900**90.1%1,80081.9%4,70059.5%3,400**
Falkirk59.2%72,90071.7%71,70055.9%9,20081.3%15,00083.2%29,500****
Fife58.2%172,60071.4%167,60060.8%26,80072.7%29,20084.7%63,90063.7%47,6008.1%5,000
Glasgow City52.8%257,50062.1%254,40048.4%39,90070.6%75,20071.0%88,000****
Highland63.8%114,50079.3%110,50060.8%12,50085.5%19,30091.1%42,40073.1%36,30010.0%4,000
Inverclyde56.6%36,60070.6%35,80055.5%5,10079.4%6,90080.4%13,300****
Midlothian59.9%38,80072.8%37,80056.8%5,20073.0%6,10082.9%14,900****
Moray63.4%44,80079.6%43,40069.8%6,30092.0%7,70085.0%17,00072.3%12,5008.8%1,400
North Ayrshire50.5%55,50063.2%54,20045.2%6,80075.6%10,40074.5%21,80055.0%15,2005.3%1,300
North Lanarkshire56.5%147,20068.8%145,80060.1%22,60075.7%30,80076.1%56,200****
Orkney Islands64.1%10,50079.8%10,100**75.8%1,30091.7%4,50074.6%3,100**
Perth and Kinross57.8%69,30073.5%67,40055.1%8,70080.5%12,20086.4%26,300****
Renfrewshire55.8%77,00068.6%75,70050.1%9,70077.9%15,60076.9%29,400****
Scottish Borders55.4%51,20070.7%49,80044.9%4,80079.2%7,70082.6%20,40066.8%17,0006.3%1,400
Shetland Islands69.6%12,50085.6%12,10076.4%2,20084.4%1,50094.9%4,900****
South Ayrshire51.9%47,80067.2%46,80053.9%6,30075.4%7,90076.1%17,50061.7%15,1004.5%1,000
South Lanarkshire58.9%148,10071.1%144,50056.1%19,40078.9%28,40081.5%57,200****
Stirling56.8%40,60069.8%39,30044.1%5,40083.0%7,00080.9%15,10069.8%11,7008.6%1,300
West Dunbartonshire54.4%40,20066.7%39,80049.8%5,50073.6%8,10078.1%15,400****
West Lothian62.4%84,90073.3%83,00057.0%11,10083.7%17,40084.0%35,300****

Source: Annual Population Survey, Jan-Dec

- Data suppressed as estimate is below reliability threshold.

- Due to the change to using the population aged 16-64 in place of the working age definition (males aged 16-64, females aged 16-59), the size of the "over state pension age" group has reduced. This has resulted in a much higher level of suppression in this group and, consequently, higher levels of secondary suppression in the 50-64 age group

Employment rates for the 50-64 age group increased steadily between 2004 and 2008 but dropped over the last two years. Once again the employment rates vary greatly across local authorities, possibly due to differences in the age structure of the population in these areas and employment opportunities available. In North Ayrshire 55.0% of this age group are in employment compared to 74.6% in the Orkney Islands.

Note that due to the change to using the population aged 16-64 in place of the working age definition (males aged 16-64, females aged 16-59), the size of the "over state pension age" group has reduced. This has resulted in a much higher level of suppression in this group and, consequently, higher levels of secondary suppression in the 50-64 age group

Table 5.2 shows the main reasons for economic inactivity by age group. People aged 50 to state pension age are much more likely to be inactive due to being retired or long term sick and people aged 16-24 are much more likely to be inactive due to being a student.

Table 5.2: Main reasons for economic inactivity by age, Scotland, 2010

Age Group
Reason16-2425-3435-4950-64All
Student
73.7%16.8%5.9%*21.6%
Looking after family11.8%50.1%36.6%10.5%20.9%
Temporary sick
*3.4%2.9%1.5%1.8%
Long term sick
5.5%20.8%45.2%37.3%29.0%
Discouraged
****0.7%
Retired
***42.1%18.3%
Other
7.7%7.9%7.8%7.4%7.6%
All
100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%

Source: Annual Population Survey, Jan-Dec

* Data suppressed as estimate below reliability threshold

Disability

Chart 5.8 illustrates that since 2004, there has been a general shift in the disabled group from economic inactivity into either employment or unemployment.

Chart 5.8: Key statistical trends for disability group, Scotland, 2004-2010

5.8

The inactivity rate (16-64) of disabled people in Scotland has decreased by 6.1 percentage points between 2004 and 2010. This represents a drop of 14,700 people. However, it should be noted that between 2009 and 2010, there has been a 75,000 increase [9] in the total number of people in Scotland who stated they were DDA disabled and/or whose disability limited the type of work they were able to do. So although the inactivity rate for disabled people reduced by 1.4 percentage points between 2009 and 2010, the level increased by 26,100. The gap between the inactivity rate for disabled people and the Scotland inactivity rate has been gradually closing since 2004, and between 2009 and 2010, the gap decreased from 26.2 to 24.4 percentage points.

Since 2004, the employment rate (16-64) for people with a disability in Scotland has increased from 42.4% to 46.9%. This corresponds to an increase of over 59,900, people. The rate had reduced from 46.4% in 2008 to 45.9% in 2009 against a back drop of a falling employment rate for all people aged 16-64, but subsequently increased by 1.0 percentage point over the year to 2010 (a rise of 41,900 people) while the employment rate for Scotland as a whole reduced by 0.9 percentage points.

The employment rates of people with a disability vary greatly across local authority areas, as shown in Chart 5.9. The employment rate for disabled people varies from 76.3% in the Shetland Islands to 32.1% in Eilean Siar.

Chart 5.9: Employment rates (16-64) for people with a disability, Scotland, 2010

Chart 5.9: Employment rates (16-64) for people with a disability, Scotland, 2010

Source: Annual Population Survey, Jan-Dec

Another way to compare employment rates for disabled people is to look at the difference in the employment rate for all working age people compared to that of disabled people as shown in Chart 5.10. In all local authorities the employment rate is lower for disabled people. The gap is lowest in the Shetland Islands at 9.3 percentage points, and widest in Eilean Siar at 36.6 percentage points. Historically, local authorities with relatively lower employment rates for people aged 16-64 have a wider gap between the overall employment rate and the employment rate for disabled people, suggesting that where less employment opportunities are available, it is harder for disabled people to find work.

Unemployment rates for disabled people in Scotland aged 16-64 had decreased between 2004 and 2007, but rose again through the recession (2008 to 2009), and have continued to rise through the start of the recovery. The unemployment rate for disabled people in Scotland rose by 0.5 percentage points over the year to 10.9% (compared to the rise for Scotland as a whole of 0.7 percentage points) and is now 3.1 percentage points higher than in 2007.

Chart 5.10: Percentage point difference in employment rates for all working age people and people with a disability, 2010

5.10

Source: Annual Population Survey, Jan-Dec

Ethnicity

The APS can currently only provide limited information about the experiences of people from ethnic minorities [10] in the labour market due to samples sizes.

Table 5.3 shows that between 2004 and 2007 the employment rate (16-64) for ethnic minorities increased each year. However, subsequent reductions in the rate through 2008 and 2009 saw it fall back to a similar level to 2005. Between 2009 and 2010, the rate has risen by 0.5 percentage points to 58.3%. The drop in rates for ethnic minorities between 2007 and 2009 (65.9% to 57.8%) was greater than the drop in employment rate for all people aged 16-64 (73.8% to 71.9%), suggesting that employment rates for ethnic minorities were more affected by the recession.

The inactivity rate (16-64) for ethnic minorities decreased between 2004 and 2007, but rose again by 7.7 percentage points between 2007 and 2009. In contrast, the inactivity rate for the whole Scottish population aged 16-64 was generally unchanged through this period, suggesting that more people in the ethnic minorities group were disengaging from the labour market as the recession took hold. Inactivity rates for the ethnic minorities group reduced by 2.2 percentage points between 2009 and 2010 to 34.7%, but are still higher than the equivalent national rate of 23.0%.

Table 5.3: Employment rates (16-64) and levels (16+) and Inactivity rates and levels (16-64) for ethnic minorities, Scotland, 2004-2010

Employment
Proportion (16-64)Level (16+)Proportion (16-64)Level
200455.3%42,80038.4%29,400
200557.8%49,20037.5%31,800
200660.0%56,80034.4%32,400
200765.9%66,30029.2%29,300
200861.2%61,30033.8%33,800
200957.8%68,30036.9%43,300
201058.3%72,30034.7%43,000

Source: Annual Population Survey, Jan-Dec

Religion

Chart 5.11 shows that, for the majority of religious groups which data is available for, the employment rate has dropped since 2007. However, for Buddhists and Hindus, employment rates increased over the past two years and their rates are now higher than in 2007. Since 2004 the employment rates of Muslims has been consistently lower than the overall Scottish employment rate. The same had been true for Buddhist, but the increases seen over the last two years means that their employment rate is now marginally higher than the national average. Due to the small sample sizes, it is not possible to display the trends for either the Jewish or Sikh groups separately. These groups have been included in the "Other" group.

Chart 5.11: Employment rates (16-64) by religion, Scotland, 2004-2010

Chart 5.11: Employment rates (16-64) by religion, Scotland, 2004-2010

Source: Annual Population Survey, Jan-Dec

Notes:
1. It is not possible to include Jewish and Sikhs within this analysis as data for most years is below reliability thresholds.

Chart 5.12 shows the inactivity rate trends for religious groups for which data is available. This shows that:

  • Inactivity rates for Christians and those of 'No religion at all' have remained fairly flat between 2004 and 2010 at around 23% and 20.5% respectively.
  • Inactivity rates for Muslims had fallen between 2005 and 2007, but rose through 2008 and 2010.
  • Inactivity rates for those of 'Any other religion' had increased between 2005 and 2008, but subsequently plateaued at around 27% between 2008 and 2010.

Chart 5.12: Inactivity rates (16-64) by religion, Scotland, 2004-2010

Chart 5.12: Inactivity rates (16-64) by religion, Scotland, 2004-2010

Source: Annual Population Survey, Jan-Dec

Notes:
1. It is not possible to include Jewish and Sikhs within this analysis as data for most years is below reliability thresholds

2. Data for Buddhist and Hindu groups are not shown as data for most years are below reliability thresholds.

People in Scotland

In addition to providing information about the labour market the Annual Population Survey ( APS) can also be used to provide up to date information about the characteristics of people living in Scotland.

Table 5.4 shows that since 2004 the proportion of the population in Scotland who reported their ethnicity as white has fallen from 97.7% to 96.7%, while the proportion of the population who reported their ethnicity as Mixed, Black or Black British or Chinese has increased over the same period. The proportion of people who reported their ethnicity as Asian or Asian British has increased from 1.2% to 1.6% since 2004, and remains the second largest ethnic grouping within Scotland.

Table 5.4: Population profile by ethnicity, Scotland, 2004-2010

2004200520062007200820092010
WhiteProportion97.7%97.5%97.3%97.2%97.1%96.7%96.7%
Level4,906,5004,912,3004,921,5004,940,8004,961,0004,961,1004,977,600
MixedProportion0.4%0.3%0.4%0.4%0.5%0.6%0.4%
Level19,90016,10022,60021,00024,90028,60023,000
Asian or Asian BritishProportion1.2%1.2%1.3%1.5%1.3%1.6%1.6%
Level58,60062,60066,80074,00064,00083,50082,900
Black or Black BritishProportion0.2%0.1%0.2%0.3%0.4%0.4%0.3%
Level8,3007,40012,00015,00019,20018,80017,000
ChineseProportion0.2%0.4%0.3%0.4%0.5%0.3%0.3%
Level10,80022,50017,20020,50025,40016,10016,500
OtherProportion0.3%0.3%0.3%0.2%0.3%0.4%0.6%
Level16,10015,30015,80011,60013,10022,70030,700
TotalLevel5,021,6005,037,3005,057,9005,085,1005,108,6005,133,3005,149,900

Source: Annual Population Survey, Jan-Dec

The APS also provides information about national identity. Respondents are asked how they would describe their national identity and can choose multiple identities. Table 5.5 shows the results for 2004, 2007 and 2010. The results indicate that 77.3% of the population described their national identity as Scottish, a decrease of 2.6 and 1.6 percentage points on 2004 and 2007 respectively. 23.7% of the population described their national identity as British, an increase of 2.3 and 1.2 percentage points on 2004 and 2007 respectively.

Table 5.5: Population profile by national identity, Scotland, 2010

ScottishEnglishIrishWelshOtherBritish
2004Proportion79.9%2.7%0.8%0.3%2.6%21.4%
Level (000's)4,011.2137.140.015.1131.21,073.1
2007Proportion78.9%2.4%0.9%0.3%3.3%22.5%
Level (000's)4,011.3123.947.213.9166.91,141.5
2010Proportion77.3%2.7%0.8%0.2%4.7%23.7%
Level (000's)3,980.8137.842.710.1243.51,219.7
Change since 2004Proportion (% pnt)-2.600-0.12.12.3
Level (000's)-3013-5112147
Change since 2007Proportion (% pnt)-1.60.3-0.1-0.11.41.2
Level (000's)-3114-5-47778

Source: Annual Population Survey, Jan-Dec

Note: Individuals can choose multiple nationalities, and as a result percentages do not sum to 100%.