The Effectiveness of Interventions to Address Health Inequalities in the Early Years: A Review of Relevant Literature

DescriptionThe review has been prepared to summarise the relevant evidence base and advise policy colleagues of the known effectiveness of specific early years health interventions. The review covers the following areas: pregnancy at a young age; maternal and foetal health during pregnancy; maternal and child nutrition and physical and mental health; child development and early education; parenting in the early years; vulnerable groups and longer term impacts.
ISBN9780755971565
Official Print Publication DateJuly 2008
Website Publication DateJuly 10, 2008

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Angela Hallam, Scottish Government, Health Analytical Services Division
ISBN 978 0 7559 7156 5 (Web only publication)
This document is also available in pdf format (880k)

CONTENTS

Acknowledgements

CHAPTER ONE: BACKGROUND INFORMATION
1.1 Introduction
1.2 The national policy context
1.3 Introduction to the evidence base
1.4 Layout of this paper

CHAPTER TWO: PREGNANCY
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Pregnancy at a young age
2.3 Maternal nutrition
2.4 Smoking cessation
2.5 Maternal stress during pregnancy (Nurse-Family Partnership)
2.6 Antenatal classes ( PIPPIN)

CHAPTER THREE: BIRTH ONWARDS - NUTRITION, SMOKING CESSATION AND SAFETY IN THE HOME AND COMMUNITY
3.1 Breastfeeding
3.2 Exposure to passive smoking in early life
3.3 Maternal and child nutrition
3.4 Oral and dental health
3.5 Accidents and injuries

CHAPTER FOUR: BIRTH ONWARDS - HOME VISITING PROGRAMMES
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Sure Start Scotland
4.3 Sure Start in England
4.4 Starting Well
4.5 Child Development Programme & Community Mothers Programme Home-Start

CHAPTER FIVE: PARENTING EDUCATION AND SUPPORT
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Child outcomes: emotional and behavioural development
5.3 Parent outcomes
5.4 The National Audit of Parent Antenatal and Postnatal Education Provision in Scotland, 2005
5.5 Parenting programmes in Scotland (Triple P, Incredible Years, Mellow Parenting)
5.6 Initiatives to promote positive parenting in Scotland

CHAPTER SIX: THREE TO EIGHT YEARS - EARLY EDUCATION AND CHILDCARE
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Pre-school education (The Effective Provision of Pre-School Education ( EPPE) Project)
6.3 High/Scope Perry Pre-school study and other evidence from the US
6.4 Systematic review of day care

CHAPTER SEVEN: THE EFFECTIVENESS OF INITIATIVES TARGETING VULNERABLE GROUPS
7.1 Introduction
7.2 A review of services for vulnerable families with very young children
7.3 People who are homeless, or at risk of becoming homeless (The Dundee Families Project)
7.4 Misuse of alcohol and other drugs
7.5 Children at risk of neglect or acting beyond the control of their parents
7.6 Looked after children

CHAPTER EIGHT: INVESTMENT IN THE EARLY YEARS - LONGER TERM IMPACTS
8.1 Introduction
8.2 The 'spiral of decline'
8.3 Costs and outcomes in services for children in need
8.4 0-5: How Small Children Make a Big Difference
8.5 The costs and benefits of early intervention
8.6 Creating and fostering non-violence in society (Circle of Security and Roots of Empathy)

CHAPTER NINE: SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Pregnancy
9.3 Birth onwards - nutrition, smoking cessation and safety
9.4 Birth onwards - home visiting programmes
9.5 Parenting education and support - early years
9.6 Three to eight years - early education and childcare
9.7 The effectiveness of initiatives targeting vulnerable groups
9.8 Investment in the early years - longer term impacts
9.9 Conclusions

REFERENCES

The views expressed in this report are those of the researcher and
do not necessarily represent those of the Department or Scottish Ministers.

This report is available on the Scottish Government Social Research website only
www.scotland.gov.uk/socialresearch.