The Economic Impacts of Wind Farms on Scottish Tourism

DescriptionOver the last two decades Energy Policy has seen a marked shift towards renewables as part of the UK commitment to reduce green house gas emissions by 20% between 2000 and 2010.
ISBN978 07559 70056
Official Print Publication Date
Website Publication DateMarch 12, 2008

Listen

ISBN 978 0 7559 7005 6 (Web only publication)
This document is also available in pdf format (3.8mb)

This full report is accompanied by a Research Findings summary

CONTENTS

LIST OF FIGURES

LIST OF TABLES

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

STUDY TEAM, CONTACT AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Part 1 Introduction and Literature Review

1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background
1.2 Research objectives
1.3 Structure of report
1.4 Defining the tourist
1.5 The selected case study areas

2 OUTLINE METHODOLOGY
2.1 The estimation of expenditure change
2.1.1 Introduction
2.1.2 The Theoretical Framework
2.1.3 Forecasting the Numbers Exposed to Wind Farms
2.1.4 Forecasting the Behaviour of Tourists Exposed to Wind Farms
2.1.5 The Relative Effect
2.1.6 The Change of Expenditure in the Accommodation Sector
2.2 Economic impact analysis

3 LITERATURE REVIEW
3.1 Introduction
3.2 The UK
3.2.1 Introduction
3.2.2 England
3.2.3 Wales
3.2.4 Scotland
3.2.5 Attitude, Attitude Change and Tourism Effects
3.2.6 UK Conclusions
3.3 The Danish experience
3.3.1 Introduction
3.3.2 Economic Cost of Wind farms on Scenery
3.3.3 Attitudes to On-Shore Farms
3.3.4 Case Study from Nysted Tourist Information
3.3.5 The Hantsholm Harbour Development
3.3.6 Conclusions on Denmark
3.4 Norwegian experience
3.4.1 Introduction: The planning system
3.4.2 Wind Farms, Outdoor Activity and Tourism
3.4.3 Attitudes to wind farms
3.4.4 Norway: Conclusions
3.5 Other international evidence
3.5.1 The US Experience
3.5.2 The Experience of Australia
3.5.3 New Zealand
3.5.4 German Experience
3.5.5 Swedish and Finnish Experience
3.6 Landscape value
3.7 General conclusion
3.8 Bibliography

Part 2 Methods

4 INTERCEPT SURVEY
4.1 Intercept locations
4.2 Questionnaire design
4.2.1 Objectives of Design
4.2.2 Attitude Questions
4.2.3 Impact of Development on Tourist Intentions
4.2.4 Estimating the Change in Intention
4.2.5 Other Questions
4.3 Survey results
4.3.1 Number and Location of Responses
4.3.2 Respondent Profile
4.3.3 Main Activities Undertaken
4.3.4 Travel Group Profile
4.3.5 Age Range and Gender
4.4 Attitude to structures in the landscape
4.5 Likelihood of return
4.5.1 Initial Estimate of Return to the Area and Scotland
4.5.2 Affect on Decision to Visit Again Having Seen the Wind Farm
4.5.3 Affect of Before and After Photos on Future Visit Intentions
4.5.4 Response to Photos of Actual and Extended Development
4.5.5 Response Summary
4.6 Views on specific wind farm issues
4.6.1 Wind farms in the same view
4.6.2 'I like to see Wind farms'
4.6.3 I think they should be painted to make them less visible
4.6.4 A well sited Wind farm does not ruin the landscape
4.7 Conclusion on Intercept Methodology

5 THE GIS STUDY
5.1 Introduction and objective
5.2 The geographical information systems model
5.3 The software
5.4 ZVI analysis
5.5 Model construction
5.5.1 Boundary Maps
5.5.2 Colour raster maps
5.5.3 Digital Terrain Model ( DTM) files
5.5.4 Placing the turbines
5.5.5 Drawing the 15km visibility region
5.5.6 Generating the ZVI
5.5.7 Adding the Road Network
5.5.8 Adding Accommodation
5.6 Using the model
5.6.1 Visibility Definitions
5.6.2 Estimating the Metrics
5.7 Estimating traffic flow
5.7.1 Data Sources
5.7.2 The Road Data Base
5.7.3 Number of Visitors by Region
5.7.4 The National Travel Survey
5.7.5 The Tourist Travel Flow Map
5.7.6 Estimation of Percentage of Tourists Affected
5.8 Tourist numbers and exposure: conclusion

6 THE INTERNET SURVEY
6.1 Objective
6.2 Contingent valuation
6.3 Design
6.4 Survey construction
6.5 The pilots
6.6 Randomizing question order
6.7 Publication and distribution
6.8 Processing and output
6.9 UK Results
6.9.1 The Respondents
6.9.2 The Willingness to Pay for Views
6.9.3 Perceptions and Reactions
6.10 US results
6.10.1 Respondents
6.10.2 The Willingness of US Tourists to Pay for Views
6.10.3 US Tourist Perceptions
6.11 Summary and conclusions
6.12 Bibliography Chapters 5 and 6

7 THE ECONOMIC IMPACT ANALYSIS
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Measuring tourism within the Scottish economy
7.3 Estimating changes in expenditure
7.4 The DREAM® system
7.5 Estimating the DREAM model
7.6 Estimating Direct Impacts
7.7 Estimating Indirect Impacts
7.8 Estimation of Induced Impacts
7.9 Estimation of Changes in Incomes and Employment
7.10 Presentation of Results
7.11 References for Chapter 7

Part 3 Analysis

8 CAITHNESS AND SUTHERLAND
8.1 The Importance of Tourism in the Local Economy
8.2 Wind farms: current and applications
8.3 Wind farms in the landscape
8.4 Affected roads
8.5 Tourist travel
8.6 Accommodation
8.7 Economic impact
8.8 Conclusion

9 STIRLING, PERTH AND KINROSS
9.1 The Importance of Tourism in the Local Economy
9.2 Wind farms : approved and applications
9.3 Wind farms in the landscape
9.4 Affected roads
9.5 Tourist traffic flows
9.6 Accommodation
9.7 Economic impact analysis

10 THE SCOTTISH BORDERS
10.1 The economic importance of tourism in the local economy
10.2 Wind farms : current and applications
10.3 Wind farms in the landscape
10.4 Affected roads
10.5 Tourist traffic flows
10.6 Accommodation
10.7 Economic impact

11 DUMFRIES AND GALLOWAY
11.1 The importance of tourism in the local economy
11.2 Wind farms : current and applications
11.3 Wind farms in the landscape
11.4 Roads affected
11.5 Tourist traffic flows
11.6 Accommodation
11.7 Economic impact

12 THE IMPACT ON SCOTLAND
12.1 Introduction
12.2 The number of tourists in Scotland affected
12.3 Economic impact of wind farms in Scotland as a whole
12.4 Estimation of upper and lower bounds
12.5 Conclusion

13 PLANNING AND OTHER ISSUES
13.1 The positive impact of wind farms on tourism
13.2 The direct impact of Wind Farms on the local economy
13.3 Tourism and planning
13.4 Tourist impact statements
13.5 Size and continuity
13.6 The 'polluter pays' principle
13.7 Protection of Wilderness Areas
13.8 Conclusion

14 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
14.1 Introduction
14.2 The literature review
14.3 The intercept survey
14.4 The GIS study
14.5 The internet survey
14.6 Economic multiplier analysis
14.7 Conclusion and planning implications

APPENDIX I Intercept Survey
APPENDIX II Internet Survey

Glasgow Caledonian University logoMoffat Centre logocogentsi logo

The views expressed in this report are those of the researcher and
do not necessarily represent those of the Department or Scottish Ministers.

This report is available on the Scottish Government Social Research website only
www.scotland.gov.uk/socialresearch.