Millennium Cohort Study: A User Guide Focussing on Families in Scotland

DescriptionThis report presents some of the main initial findings of a focus on Scotland’s families in the Second Survey of the Millennium Cohort Study (MCS2) . It is intended to provide an introduction to potential users of the survey and to stimulate further in-depth and longitudinal analysis.
ISBN
Official Print Publication Date
Website Publication DateJanuary 25, 2008

Listen

Edited by Shirley Dex, Centre for Longitudinal Studies, Institute of Education, University of London
ISBN 978 0 7559 6896 1 (Web only publication)
ISSN 0950 2254
This document is also available in pdf format (1.2mb)

CONTENTS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
List of contributors

HEADLINE FINDINGS

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Scotland's User Guide to Millennium Cohort Study Data
1 Introduction to Millennium Cohort Study
2 Housing, neighbourhood and community
3 Family demographics and relationships
4 Grandparents
5 Parenting
6 Child health
7 Cognitive development and behaviour
8 Parental health and wellbeing
9 Parental employment and education
10 Income and poverty
11 Childcare and early education
12 Potential for further use

CHAPTER ONE. THE MILLENNIUM COHORT STUDY DETAILS

Note on sample sizes in rest of the Report's Annex
Note on Table numbering in rest of the Report's Annex
Weights
Units of analysis in case of children
Details of Millennium Cohort Study
Table 1.1 Achieved Samples in MCS1 and MCS2
Table 1.2 MCS1 productives by MCS1 and MCS2 country
Table 1.4 Distribution of cohort member's age at MCS2
Table 1.5 Rates of attrition MCS1 to MCS2 by country by NVQ at MCS1 and family income at MCS1
Percent of MCS1 sample non-productive at MCS2

CHAPTER TWO. HOUSING, NEIGHBOURHOOD AND COMMUNITY

Mobility of residence
Table 2.1 Residential mobility by UK country at MCS 1
Table 2.2 Mean distance moved by UK country living in at MCS1
Table 2.3a (Scotland) Residential mobility by type of accommodation at MCS1
Table 2.3b (Rest of UK) Residential mobility by type of accommodation at MCS 1
Table 2.4a (Scotland) Residential mobility by tenure at MCS 1
Table 2.4b (Rest of UK) Residential mobility by tenure at sweep 1
Table 2.5a (Scotland) Residential mobility by family income at MCS 1
Table 2.5b (Rest of UK) Residential mobility by family income at MCS 1
Table 2.6a (Scotland) Residential mobility by combined labour market status of main and partner respondents at MCS 1
Table 2.6b (Rest of UK) Residential mobility by combined labour market status of main and partner respondents at MCS 1
Table 2.7a (Scotland) Reasons for moving given by movers by MCS2
Table 2.7b (Rest of UK) Reasons for moving given by movers by MCS2

Families' views about the area
Table 2.8 Whether respondent thought "Good area to bring up children" by UK country of residence
Table 2.9 Whether respondent thought "Good area to bring up children" by UK country
Table 2.10a (Scotland) Main respondent's NS-SEC (five-fold classification) by 'Good area to bring up children'
Table 2.10b (Rest of UK) Main respondent's NS-SEC (five-fold classification) by 'Good area to bring up children'
Table 2.11 "How safe you feel in area" by UK country of interview
Table 2.12"How safe you feel in area" by UK country and urban/rural location
Table 2.13a (Scotland) 'How safe you feel in area' by Main respondent's NS-SEC (five-fold classification)
Table 2.13b (Rest of UK) Main respondent's NS-SEC (five-fold classification) by 'How safe you feel in area'

Home atmosphere
Table 2.14 Home atmosphere scale (weighted means) by UK country at MCS 2
Table 2.15a Home atmosphere (weighted means) at MCS 2 by parents' labour market status (couples) and number of parents/carers. (Scotland)
Table 2.15b Home atmosphere (weighted means) at MCS 2 by parents' labour market status (couples) and number of parents/carers (Rest of UK).

CHAPTER THREE. FAMILY DEMOGRAPHICS

Family type
Table 3.1 Family type at MCS1 and MCS2 by country

Change in family type
Table 3.3 Change in family type by country
Table 3.4a Change in family type by mother's age at MCS2 interview (Scotland)
Table 3.4b Change in family type by mother's age at MCS2 interview (Rest of UK)

Transition from cohabitation to marriage
Table 3.5 Transition from cohabitation to marriage by country
Table 3.6a Transition from cohabitation to marriage by mother's age at MCS2 interview (Scotland)
Table 3.6b Transition from cohabitation to marriage by mother's age at MCS2 interview (Rest of UK)

Having a another baby by MCS2
Table 3.7 Whether cohort mother had a subsequent birth at MCS 2 by Country at MCS 2

Number of siblings
Table 3.8 Number of siblings in household at MCS1 and MCS2 by country
Table 3.9a Number of siblings in household by mother's age at MCS2 interview (Scotland)
Table 3.9b Number of siblings in household by mother's age at MCS2 interview (Rest of UK)

Older and younger siblings
Table 3.10 Older and younger siblings in household by country
Table 3.11a Older and younger siblings in household by mother's age at MCS2 interview (Scotland)
Table 3.11b Older and younger siblings in household by mother's age at MCS2 interview (Rest of UK)

Half siblings
Table 3.12 Half-siblings in household by country

Table 3.13a Half-siblings in household by family type (Scotland)
Table 3.32b Half-siblings in household by family type (Rest of UK)

Grandparents
Table 3.14 Grandparents in the household by country
Table 3.15a Grandparents in household by mother's age at MCS2 interview (Scotland)
Table 3.15b Grandparents in household by mother's age at MCS2 interview (Rest of UK)

Natural father in household
Table 3.16 Natural father in household by country
Table 3.17a Natural father in household by mother's age at MCS2 interview (Scotland)
Table 3.17b Natural father in household by mother's age at MCS2 interview (Rest of UK)

Transition from non-resident to resident natural father
Table 3.18 Transition from non-resident to resident natural father by country
Table 3.19a Transition from non-resident to resident natural father by mother's age at MCS2 interview (Scotland)
Table 3.19b Transition from non-resident to resident natural father by mother's age at MCS2 interview (Rest of UK)
Table 3.20a Transition from non-resident to resident natural father by prior relationship from MCS1 (Scotland)
Table 3.20b Transition from non-resident to resident natural father by prior relationship from MCS1 (Rest of UK)
Table 3.21a Transition from non-resident to resident natural father by contact patterns from MCS1 (Scotland)
Table 3.21b Transition from non-resident to resident natural father by contact patterns from MCS1 (Rest of UK)
Table 3.22a Transition from non-resident to resident natural father by maintenance payments from MCS1 (Scotland)
Table 3.22b Transition from non-resident to resident natural father by maintenance payments from MCS1 (Rest of UK)

Contact and maintenance payments
Table 3.23 Contact with non-resident natural father and maintenance payments by non-resident natural father by country
Table 3.24a Contact with non-resident natural father and maintenance payments by non-resident natural father by mother's age (Scotland)
Table 3.24b Contact with non-resident natural father and maintenance payments by non-resident natural father by mother's age (Rest of UK)
Table 3.25a Contact with non-resident natural father at MCS2 and maintenance payments by non-resident natural father at MCS2 by whether natural father previously resident at MCS1(Scotland)
Table 3.25b Contact with non-resident natural father and maintenance payments by non-resident natural father by whether natural father previously resident (Rest of UK)

CHAPTER FOUR. THE GRANDPARENTS OF THE COHORT CHILD

Presence of Grandparents
Table 4.1a Proportion of respondents reporting their parents as alive (Scotland)
Table 4.1b Proportion of respondents reporting their parents as alive (Rest of UK)

Grandparent Contact
Table 4.4a Contact between respondents' and their parents (Scotland)
Table 4.4b Contact between respondents' and their parents (Rest of UK)

Child care and financial support from Grandparents
Table 4.5a Child care and financial support provided by at least one grandparent (Scotland)
Table 4.5b Child care and financial support provided by at least one grandparent (Rest of UK)

Employment in the Previous Generation
Table 4.7 Percentage of respondents whose parents were employed when they were 14 by country at MCS2 (Scotland)
Table 4.7b Percentage of respondents whose parents were employed when they were 14 ( Rest of UK)
Table 4.8a Respondents' parents' social class, based on their occupation when the respondent was 14 (Scotland)
Table 4.8b Respondents' parents' social class, based on their occupation when the respondent was 14 (Rest of the UK )

CHAPTER FIVE. PARENTING

Time with child
Table 5.1a Mothers' time with child at age 3 (Scotland)
Table 5.1b Mothers' time with child at age 3 (Rest of UK)
Table 5.2 Fathers' time with child at age 3 by UK country
Table 5.3a Fathers' time with child at age 3 (Scotland)
Table 5.3b Fathers' time with child at age 3 (Rest of UK)

Family Activities
Table 5.4a Mothers reading with the child at age 3 (Scotland)
Table 5.4b Mothers reading with the child at age 3 (Rest of UK )
Table 5.5 Fathers reading with the child at age 3 by UK country
Table 5.6a Fathers reading with the child at age 3 (Scotland)
Table 5.6b Fathers reading with the child at age 3 (Rest of UK)

Parenting Competence - Regularity of Bedtime
Table 5.7 Regularity of bedtimes at age 3 by UK country
Table 5.8a Regularity of bedtimes at age 3 - (Scotland)
Table 5.8b Regularity of bedtimes at age 3 - (Rest of UK)

Regularity of Mealtimes
Table 5.9 Regularity of mealtimes at age 3 by UK country
Table 5.10a Regularity of mealtimes at age 3 - (Scotland)
Table 5.10b Regularity of mealtimes at age 3 - (Rest of UK)

Parenting beliefs and values

Table 5.11 Important qualities for children at age 3 by UK country
Table 5.12a Important qualities for children at age 3 - (Scotland)
Table 5.12b Important qualities for children at age 3 -( Rest of UK)
Table 5.13 Important values for children by UK country
Table 5.14a Important values for children - (Scotland)
Table 5.14b Important values for children - (Rest of UK)

Rules
Table 5.15 Mothers rules at age 3 by UK country
Table 5.16 Whether mother reports rules were strictly enforced: child age 3 by UK country

Parenting Style
Table 5.17 Mothers' parenting style at age 3 by UK country

CHAPTER SIX. CHILD HEALTH

Disability and general health
Table 6.1 Parental concerns about eyesight, hearing and long-standing Illness at MCS2, by country and type of ward at MCS1
Table 6.2a Longstanding illness by children's gender (Scotland)
Table 6.2b Longstanding illness at ag e3 by children's gender (Rest of UK)
Table 6.3a Longstanding illness at age 3 by family income at MCS1 (Scotland)
Table 6.3b Longstanding illness at age 3 by family income at MCS1 (Rest of UK)

Asthma and acute illnesses
Table 6.4 Asthma, wheezing and chickenpox by country and type of ward at MCS1
Table 6.5a Asthma and wheezing, chickenpox and recurring ear infections at MCS2 by gender (Scotland)
Table 6.5b Asthma and wheezing, chickenpox and recurring ear infections at MCS2 by gender (Rest of UK)
Table 6.6a Child asthma, wheezing and recurring ear infections at MCS2 by maternal smoking (Scotland)
Table 6.6b Child asthma, wheezing and recurring ear infections at MCS2 by maternal smoking (Rest of UK)

Injuries
Table 6.7 Injuries by country and type of ward at MCS1
Table 6.8a Health service attendance for accidental injury by child gender (Scotland)
Table 6.8b Health service attendance for accidental injury by child gender (Rest of UK)
Table 6.9a Health service attendance for accidental injury at MCS2 by family income at nine months and three years (Scotland)
Table 6.9b Health service attendance for accidental injury at MCS2 by family income at nine months and three years (Rest of UK)
Table 6.10 Immunisation for Measles, Mumps and Rubella by country and type of ward at MCS1
Table 6.11a Immunisation for measles, mumps and rubella by gender (Scotland)
Table 6.11b Immunisation for measles, mumps and rubella by gender (rest of UK)

Height and weight

Table 6.12a. Overweight and obesity by children's gender (Scotland)
Table 6.12b Overweight and obesity by children's gender (Rest of UK)
Table 6.13a Childhood overweight and obesity by equivalised family income (Scotland)
Table 6.13b Childhood overweight and obesity by equivalised family income (Rest of UK)
Table 6.14a Childhood overweight and obesity by mother's highest academic qualification at MCS1 (Scotland)
Table 6.14b Childhood overweight and obesity by mother's highest academic qualification at MCS1 (Rest of UK)

Toilet training
Table 6.15a Toilet training and concerns about speech by gender (Scotland)
Table 6.15b Toilet training and concerns about speech by gender (Rest of UK)

CHAPTER 7. CHILD DEVELOPMENT

British Ability Scales ( BAS) Naming Vocabulary
Table: 7.1 BAS Mean and Percentile Scores by Country and Child Gender
Table 7.2a BAS naming Vocabulary Score: means and percentile scores (Scotland)
Table 7.2b BAS naming Vocabulary Score: means and percentile scores (Rest of UK)

Bracken Basic Concept Scale - Revised ( BBCS-R)
Table: 7.3 Bracken Mean and Percentile Scores at MCS2 and Gender of Child by country
Table 7.4a Bracken School Readiness Test Scores: means and percentile scores (Scotland)
Table 7.4b Bracken School Readiness Test Scores: means and percentile scores (Rest of UK)

Behavioural adjustment
Table: 7.5 Total Difficulties Score Mean and Percentiles at MCS2 by country
Table 7.6a Total Difficulties Score: means and percentile scores (Scotland)
Table 7.6bTotal Difficulties Score: means and percentile scores (Rest of UK)

Developmental Milestone Measures by British Ability Scores ( BAS)
Table 7.7a BAS naming Vocabulary Score: means and percentile scores (Scotland)
Table 7.7b BAS naming Vocabulary Score: means and percentile scores (Rest of UK)

Developmental Milestone Measures by Bracken School Readiness
Table 7.8a Bracken School Readiness Test Scores: means and percentile scores (Scotland)
Table 7.8b Bracken School Readiness Test Scores: means and percentile scores (Rest of UK)

Developmental Milestone Measures by total difficulties score
Table 7.9a Total Difficulties Score: means and percentile scores (Scotland)
Table 7.9b Total Difficulties Score: means and percentile scores (Rest of UK)

References

CHAPTER EIGHT. PARENTAL HEALTH AND WELL-BEING

Self rated health
Table 8.1 Parental general health, MCS 2 by country
Table 8.2a Parental general health, MCS2 (Scotland)
Table 8.2b Parental general health, MCS 2 (Rest of UK)

Longstanding illness
Table 8.3 Parental longstanding illness, MCS 2 by country
Table 8.4a Parental longstanding illness, MCS 2 (Scotland)
Table 8.4b Parental longstanding illness, MCS2 (Rest of UK)

Health-related behaviour
Table 8.5 Current parental smoking status, MCS2 by country
Table 8.6a Current parental smoking status, MCS 2 (Scotland)
Table 8.6b Current parental smoking status, MCS 2 (Rest of UK)
Table 8.7 Current frequency of parental alcohol use, MCS 2 by country
Table 8.8a Current frequency of parental alcohol use, MCS 2 (Scotland)
Table 8.8b Current frequency of parental alcohol use, MCS 2 (Rest of UK)
Table 8.9 Parental CAGE scores, MCS2 by country
Table 8.10a Parental CAGE scores, MCS 2 (Scotland)
Table 8.11 Current parental drug use, MCS 2 by country
Table 8.12a Current parental drug use, MCS2 (Scotland)
Table 8.12b Current parental drug use, MCS 2 (Rest of UK)

Psycho-social health
Table 8.13 Maternal post-natal depression by country (natural mothers who had had another child since MCS1), MCS2
Table 8.14a Maternal post-natal depression (Scotland) (natural mothers who had had another child since MCS1), MCS 2
Table 8.14b Maternal post-natal depression (Rest of UK) (natural mothers who had had another child since MCS1), MCS 2
Table 8.15 Mother diagnosed depression or serious anxiety, MCS 2
Table 8.16a Parental diagnosed depression or serious anxiety, MCS2 (Scotland)
Table 8.16b Parental diagnosed depression or serious anxiety, MCS2 (Rest of UK)
Table 8.17 Parental psychological distress, MCS 2 by country
Table 8.18a Parental psychological distress, MCS 2 (Scotland)
Table 8.18b Parental psychological distress, MCS 2 (Rest of UK)

Life satisfaction
Table 8.19 Parental life satisfaction, MCS 2, by country
Table 8.20a Parental life satisfaction, MCS 2 (Scotland)
Table 8.20b Parental life satisfaction, MCS2 (Rest of UK)

Height and Weight
Table 8.21 Parental Body Mass Index ( BMI), MCS 2 by country
Table 8.22a Parental Body Mass Index ( BMI), MCS 2 (Scotland)
Table 8.22b Parental Body Mass Index ( BMI), MCS2 (Rest of UK)

CHAPTER NINE. EMPLOYMENT AND EDUCATION

Mother's economic activity at age 3
Table 9.1 Mother's economic activity status by country at age 3

Mothers' education and employment
Table 9.2 Mothers' education qualifications at MCS 2 by Country
Table 9.3a Mother's current economic activity by highest educational achievement - Scotland
Table 9.3b Mother's current economic activity by highest educational achievement - Rest of UK

Changes in employment status MCS1 to MCS2
Table 9.4a Mother's employment transitions from MCS1 to MCS 2 - Scotland
Table 9.4b Mother's employment transitions from MCS1 to MCS 2 - Rest of UK
Table 9. 5a Employed mother's NS-SEC (4) classification at MCS2 by highest education level by MCS1. Scotland
Table 9.5b Employed mother's NS-SEC (4) classification at MCS2 by highest education level by MCS1 in Rest of UK
Table 9.6a Mother's economic activity status at child's age 3 by type of ward - Scotland
Table 9.6b Mother's economic activity status at child's age 3 by type of ward - Rest of UK
Table 9.7a Mother's economic activity status by number of children at child's age 3 - Scotland
Table 9.7b Mother's economic activity status by number of children at child's age 3 - Rest of UK
Table 9.8 Mean weekly hours of employed mothers by whether works full or part-time

Father's economic activity at age 3
Table 9.9 Father's economic activity by country at child's age 3
Table 9.10 Fathers' education qualifications at MCS 2 by country
Table 9.11a Father's current economic activity status at child's age 3 by highest educational achievement at MCS1 - Scotland
Table 9.11b Father's current economic activity status at child's age 3 by highest educational achievement at MCS1 - Rest of UK
Table 9.12a Employed father's NS-SEC (4) by highest education level at MCS1 - Scotland
Table 9.12b Employed father's NS-SEC (4) by highest education level at MCS1 - Rest of UK

Couples' employment status at age
Table 9.13 Parents' partnerships and economic status by country

Employed parents' NS-SEC statuses
Table 9.14 Employed mother's NS-SEC by country
Table 9.15 Employed father's NS-SEC when child aged 3 by country

Employed mother's atypical working patterns
Table 9.16 Employed mother's working at atypical hours per week, by country
Table 9.17a Employed mother's atypical weekly working patterns by NS-SEC - Scotland
Table 9.17b Employed mother's atypical weekly working patterns by NS-SEC - Rest of UK

Employee mother's use of flexible working arrangements
Table 9.18 Percent of employee mothers in each country who reported using flexible working arrangements with their current employer at age 3
Table 9.19a Percent of employee mothers in each NS-SEC group who reported using flexible working arrangements with their current employer, by NS-SEC (4) at child's age 3 - Scotland
Table 9.19b Percent of employee mothers in each NS-SEC group who reported using flexible working arrangements with their current employer, by NS-SEC (4) at child's age 3 - Rest of UK
Table 9.20 Percent of employee mothers in each country with access to employer-provided family-friendly arrangements by country at child's age 3

Non-employed mothers' reasons for not working at age 3
Table 9.21 Non-employed mothers' reasons for not working, by country
Table 9.22a Non-employed mothers' reasons for not working at MCS2 by partner's employment status at MCS2 Scotland
Table 9.22b Non-employed mothers' reasons for not working at MCS2 by partner's employment status at MCS2 Rest of UK
Table 9.23a Non-employed mothers' reasons for not working at MCS2 by household income at MCS2 Scotland
Table 9.23b Non-employed mothers' reasons for not working at MCS2 by household income at MCS2 Rest of UK

Changes in parent's employment from 9-10 months to age 3
Table 9.24a Changes in mother's employment status and hours of work from 9-10 mths to age 3 Scotland
Table 9.24b Changes in mother's employment status and hours of work from 9-10 mths to age 3 Rest of UK
Table 9.25a Changes in father's employment status and hours of work from 9-10 mths to age 3 Scotland
Table 9.25b Changes in father's employment status and hours of work from 9-10 mths to age 3 Rest of UK

Changes in parents' combined partnership and economic status
Table 9.26a Parents' partnerships and economic statuses at child's age 9-10 months and age 3 - Scotland
Table 9.26b Parents' partnerships and economic statuses at child's age 9-10 months and age 3 - Rest of UK

Mother's new qualifications by age 3
Table 9.27 Whether mothers had acquired new qualifications by MCS2 country
Table 9.28a Mother's new qualifications by MCS2 by NVQ level at MCS1 - Scotland
Table 9.28b Mother's new qualifications by MCS2 by NVQ level at MCS1- Rest of UK

Father's new qualifications by age 3
Table 9.29 Whether fathers had acquired new qualifications by MCS2 by country
Table 9.30a Father's new qualifications by MCS2 by NVQ at MCS1- Scotland
Table 9.30b Father's new qualifications by MCS2 by NVQ level at MCS1 - Rest of UK

CHAPTER TEN. INCOME AND POVERTY

Methods
Income poverty

By country
Table 10.1 Percent families in poverty at MCS2 by country
Table 10.2a Incidence of family income poverty at MCS2, by ward type, partnership, number of children and mother's age at birth (Scotland)
Table 10.3a Family poverty at MCS2 by employment and by education of parents (Scotland)
Table 10.3b Family poverty at MCS2 by employment and by education of parents (Rest of UK)
Table 10.4a Subjective indicators at MCS2 by income poverty (Scotland)
Table 10.4 b Subjective indicators at MCS 2 by income poverty (Rest of UK)
Table 10.5a Poverty at MCS1 and MCS2 (Scotland)
Table 10.5b Poverty at MCS1 and MCS2 (Rest of UK)

CHAPTER ELEVEN. CHILDCARE

Main childcare arrangement at MCS 2
Table 11.1 Main Childcare Arrangement at Age 3 by users of care by country
Table 11.2a Main Childcare Arrangement at Age Three by users of care (Scotland)
Table 11.2b Main Childcare Arrangement at Age Three by users of care (Rest of UK)

Hours of Care
Table 11.3a Mean weekly hours of care for each childcare arrangement of non-working mothers (Scotland)
Table 11.3b Mean weekly hours of care for each childcare arrangement of non-working mothers (Rest of UK)
Table 11.4a Mean weekly hours of care for each childcare arrangement of working mothers (Scotland)
Table 11.4b Mean weekly hours of care for each childcare arrangement of working mothers (Rest of UK)
England, Wales, and Northern Ireland only

Price
Table 11.5a Mean price per hour of formal childcare arrangements (Scotland)
Table 11.5b Mean price per hour of formal childcare arrangements (Rest of UK)
England, Wales, and Northern Ireland only

Longitudinal relationships between childcare arrangements
Figure 11.1a Changes in Use of Childcare Arrangement between MCS1 and MCS2
Scotland Only
Figure 11.1b Changes in Use of Childcare Arrangement between MCS1 and MCS2
England, Wales, and Northern Ireland Only

The views expressed in this report are those of the researcher and
do not necessarily represent those of the Department or Scottish Ministers.

This report is available on the Scottish Government Social Research website only
www.scotland.gov.uk/socialresearch.