One Scotland Many Cultures 2005/06 - Waves 6 and 7 Campaign Evaluation

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Chapter Two - Research Findings

2.1 The main findings are highlighted in this section of the report. Reference is made to findings from previous waves as appropriate.

Ethnicity

Table 2.1 - Ethnic group
Base: All respondents

Wave 3
(%)

Wave 4
(%)

Wave 5
(%)

Wave 6
(%)

Wave 7
(%)

Scottish

75

79

79

81

84

British

39

29

25

24

22

European

5

5

6

6

5

Other

2

2

3

2

3

N (Unweighted):

905

1022

941

1033

1011

(* = greater than zero but less than 0.5%)

2.2 When asked which ethnic group they belonged to, a number of respondents selected more than one option, usually both Scottish and British, hence percentages adding to more than 100%. At the latest wave (Wave 7), 84% regarded themselves as Scottish, which indicates an increase in perceived Scottishness over time. At the same time, there has been a decrease in perceived Britishness, with 22% regarding themselves as British at the latest wave. This indicates a continued erosion of perceived Britishness among respondents, which has fallen significantly from 39% at Wave 3.

Table 2.2 - Country of birth
Base: All respondents

Wave 2
(%)

Wave 3
(%)

Wave 4
(%)

Wave 5
(%)

Wave 6
(%)

Wave 7
(%)

Scotland

88

86

85

87

87

85

England

7

9

9

8

7

9

Wales

*

*

1

*

*

1

Northern Ireland

1

1

1

1

*

*

Republic of Ireland

1

*

*

*

1

1

India

*

*

*

*

*

*

Pakistan

-

*

*

*

*

*

Other

2

2

4

4

5

4

N (Unweighted):

1045

905

1022

941

1033

1011

(* = greater than zero but less than 0.5%)

2.3 The majority of respondents (85%) claimed to be born in Scotland at the latest wave, a similar level to the previous waves. The number of those claiming to have been born in England also remained largely consistent at this latest wave (9%).

Experience of racism

2.4 Data was collected on the level of exposure to racist behaviour either as victim, perpetrator or witness. The general picture is shown in Table 2.3.

Table 2.3 - Exposure to racist behaviour
Base: All respondents

Wave 2
(%)

Wave 3
(%)

Wave 4
(%)

Wave 5
(%)

Wave 6
(%)

Wave 7
(%)

Personally a victim

13

15

14

11

14

16

Responsible for racist abuse

4

5

6

6

4

5

Witnessed racial abuse

30

32

33

34

37

38

Any exposure

35

37

38

37

38

42

N (Unweighted):

1045

905

1022

941

1033

1011

2.5 Despite the fact that between Waves 3 and 6, exposure to 'any' racist behaviour - that is, as a victim, as perpetrator or as a witness remained on a par, at the latest wave the level of those exposed to 'any' racist behaviour increased to the highest level (42%) since tracking commenced. This is led primarily by the increase in those claiming to have personally been a victim (16% at the latest wave) and those who have witnessed racial abuse (38% at the latest wave), both of which have individually reached their highest level since tracking began. Since Wave 2, there has in fact been a gradual increase in the number claiming to have witnessed racial abuse, with an eight percentage point increase between Wave 2 and Wave 7. Demographically, the key points to note:

  • ABC1s are more likely to claim to have been a victim than C2DEs (19% vs 13%)
  • Males are more likely than Females to have been responsible for racist behaviour (9% vs 1%)
  • Males are more likely to have witnessed racial behaviour (45% vs 32% Females), as are ABC1s (43% vs 33% C2DEs)

Advertising awareness and effectiveness

2.6 Although the questions on advertising were asked after the attitudinal data were collected to avoid prompting, the findings are presented first in the report to enable any developments on these measures of opinion to be assessed against the background of advertising awareness levels. The latest advertising activity consisted of TV and radio.

Spontaneous recall

Overall recall

2.7 When asked whether they had seen or heard any advertising or publicity on the subject of anti-racism recently, 60% of respondents claimed to have done so at this latest wave. At Wave 6, prior to the most recent phase of advertising, the level was 48%. The most comparable figure for the latest phase was that recorded at Wave 3 which included 3 TV adverts which were shown on ITV channels. At Wave 3, 68% recalled having seen or heard advertising. Comparing these results therefore indicates that the latest campaign did not penetrate as well with respondents suggesting that they do not stand out as well as previous campaign phases, which may in part be influenced by the lower media spend used in this campaign phase. Indeed the level of recall for this campaign is also low when compared to other public sector campaigns monitored by TNS System Three.

Media source

2.8 Among those who had seen or heard any campaign activity (60% of the sample at Wave 7), the media mentioned spontaneously as where they recall having seen or heard advertising are shown in Table 2.4. It should be noted that this question was not asked at Wave 6.

Table 2.4- Where seen or heard advertising or publicity
Base: All respondents

Wave 3
(%)

Wave 4
(%)

Wave 5
(%)

Wave 7
(%)

Advertising on TV

55

31

37

50

Programmes on TV

8

8

4

7

Advertising in papers

5

5

7

7

Articles in newspapers

5

8

6

6

Outdoor posters

16

10

8

8

Radio

5

5

12

9

Bus-sides

-

-

5

2

N (Unweighted):

905

1022

941

1011

2.9 Overall, half of the sample (50%) at the latest wave recalled having seen advertising on TV. This was slightly lower than the level at Wave 3 (55%) when TV last ran on the ITV channels, and is significantly higher than the number who recalled TV the last time this ran at Wave 5 (37%). Respondents therefore do appear to be recalling TV, although not quite to the level recorded when the first phase of the campaign ran.

2.10 Radio awareness remained largely similar to the level recorded at Wave 5 (9% at the latest wave compared to 12% at Wave 5).

Content recall from TV/cinema advertising

2.11 All respondents who claimed to have seen advertising on TV (50% of the total sample) were then asked what they recalled. Table 2.5 shows what these respondents recall having seen.

Table 2.5 - Content of the advertising seen on TV
Base: Seen advertising on TV

Wave 5
(%)

Wave 7
(%)

Mentions relating to current campaign

23

20

Descriptions of Virus

4

*

- Racism is a virus, don't spread it

3

*

- Someone putting a racist joke on a computer

2

*

Descriptions of Canada

18

19

- About the way Scottish people were treated in Canada in past

2

-

- Man walking to school with child

4

10

- Voiceover talking about moving to Canada/Scots settling in Canada

8

14

Talking in a Scottish accent but foreign people

6

5

Different cultures make us a better society

3

*

Any mention 'Shop' advert

6

2

No place for racism

-

4

One Scotland

2

9

One Scotland, many cultures

3

3

Don't know

33

27

N (Unweighted):

347

497

2.12 At this latest wave, 20% of those who recalled seeing an advert on TV were able to recall any aspect which can directly be attributed to the most recent advertising campaign. As was the case at Wave 5, the individual advert which cut through at the highest level was Canada (19%). Virus and Different made very little impact, with less than one percent recalling each of these adverts.

2.13 The slogan for the campaign No place for racism was recalled at this wave by 4% whilst the brand One Scotland is also cutting through at higher levels (9% compared to 2% at Wave 5).

Verbally prompted awareness

Content recall from radio advertising

2.14 All those respondents who did not recall radio advertising spontaneously were then asked specifically whether they recalled having heard any advertising on radio on the subject of anti-racism recently (verbally prompted recall). When asked in this way, the overall figure of those aware of radio advertising increased to 15% of the total sample (from 9% of the total population who spontaneously recalled the radio adverts). The main details of the advertising recalled by this 15% are shown in Table 2.6.

Table 2.6 - Content of the advertising heard on radio
Base: Heard advertising on radio (spontaneous recall
and verbally prompted)

Wave 5
(%)

Wave 7
(%)

Mentions relating to current campaign

51

36

- People talking in Scottish accents but different cultures

21

3

- A person telling you about their life then tells you they're an ethnic minority

11

-

- People from different cultures talking

-

2

- Lots of people talking/speaking

-

13

- There's no place from racism in Scotland

-

13

- Scotland should be multicultural/be one

-

5

Any mention 'One Scotland'

7

20

- One Scotland

4

15

- One Scotland, many cultures

3

7

Don't know

21

30

N (Unweighted):

193

152

2.15 Overall, just over a third (36%) of those who had heard radio advertising were able to recall an aspect of the radio campaign. This is lower than the level of recall of radio at Wave 5, when 51% recalled an aspect of the radio advertising. At the latest wave, there were more mentions of the actual messages of the radio advertising rather than descriptions of what happened in the adverts. The main mentions at the latest wave were Lots of people talking/speaking (13%) and There's no place for racism in Scotland (13%). As was the case with television recall, mentions of One Scotland again came through more strongly (15%) at this wave than at Wave 5 (4%).

Visually/auditory prompted awareness

2.16 To establish the reach of certain elements of the campaign, respondents were played the Canada and DifferentTV adverts and played the radio advert Xylophone. For each of the adverts, they were asked to state whether they had seen or heard it recently. Table 2.7 shows the results.

Table 2.7 - Reach of adverts tested2
Base: All respondents

Wave 7
(%)

Total reach

75

Canada advert

62

Different advert

37

Xylophone advert

26

N (Unweighted):

1011

2.17 When played the CanadaTV advert, 62% recalled having seen it. This is a reasonable level of reach for a TV advert compared to other campaigns monitored by TNS System Three. However, the level of reach recorded for Different was quite low, at 37%. The cumulative reach of these two adverts, that is, those who recall having seen at least one of the TV adverts was 70%. In terms of radio, twenty six percent recalled the Xylophone radio advert, which is slightly lower than other adverts monitored by TNS System Three. Overall, when these levels are combined, the total reach for the adverts tested was 75% which is a very good level, but is mainly as a result of the high level of reach recorded for Canada. It should however be noted that this total reach figure is purely the total reach of the TV and radio adverts tested, and not of the campaign as a whole. Demographically, total reach was highest amongst:

  • Females (78% vs 72% amongst Males)
  • Those aged 35-54 (82%, vs 75% amongst 16-34 year olds and 68% amongst 55+ year olds)
  • C2DEs (77% vs 73% amongst ABC1s)

Awareness of brand and strapline

2.18 The Scottish Executive use the brand ' One Scotland' for the ' One Scotland, Many Cultures' campaign. When asked to name the slogan or catch-phrase used recently in advertising and publicity on the subject of racism, 19% at this latest wave spontaneously mentioned 'One Scotland', compared to 9% at Wave 5. The new strapline, ' No place for racism', appears to be starting to cut through, with 5% spontaneously mentioning this at the latest wave. Once respondents were prompted with the statement 'One Scotland', 61% recalled being aware of it, compared to 43% at Wave 5. This does suggest that ' One Scotland' is starting to cut through. This level however was still significantly lower than the 72% who recalled ' One Scotland, Many cultures' when prompted in 2004.

Attitudes to racism

Self-assessment as racist

2.19 While it is possible to identify those of a more racist nature from their response to the series of attitude statements, respondents were also asked directly to assess their stance towards people from an ethnic background or nationality different from their own. Results are shown in Table 2.8.

Table 2.8 - Own attitudes toward people of different ethnic background/nationality
Base: All respondents

Wave 2
(%)

Wave 3
(%)

Wave 4
(%)

Wave 5
(%)

Wave 6
(%)

Wave 7
(%)

Strongly racist

1

1

2

1

2

1

Slightly racist

24

21

21

22

21

22

Not racist at all

75

78

76

77

77

77

Don't know/not stated

-

-

-

-

-

-

N (Unweighted):

1045

905

1022

941

1033

1011

2.20 Overall, there has been very little change in terms of the number of respondents perceiving themselves as racist over time. The majority (77%) regarded themselves as not racist at all, a figure comparable to the previous waves of research. There remained however around a quarter (23%) who regarded themselves as at least slightly racist. Demographically there are no key findings other than Males are more likely to regard themselves as racist than Females (27% vs 20%).

As noted within reports at previous waves, it should be borne in mind that how this question is answered is dependent upon the individual's perception of what constitutes racist behaviour. In TNS System Three's view, the results to this measure are therefore likely to be the best case scenario, with racist attitudes in reality likely to be more prevalent.

Racism as a problem in Scotland

2.21 A four point scale was used to assess perceptions of the seriousness of racism as a problem in Scotland today, with the results shown in Table 2.9.

Table 2.9 - Seriousness of racism as a problem
Base: All respondents

Wave 2
(%)

Wave 3
(%)

Wave 4
(%)

Wave 5
(%)

Wave 6
(%)

Wave 7
(%)

A very serious problem

15

19

23

9

10

7

A serious problem

41

42

36

38

36

33

A slight problem

36

33

31

43

44

49

Not a problem at all

9

6

10

10

10

11

Don't know/not stated

-

-

-

-

-

-

N (Unweighted):

1045

905

1022

941

1033

1011

2.22 At Wave 5, it was noted that racism was starting to be perceived as less of a problem in Scotland and indeed, this is a trend which has continued across Waves 6 and 7. At the latest wave, the level of those regarding racism as a very serious problem dropped to 7%, the lowest level recorded on this measure since tracking began. TNS System Three's hypothesis of this remains as noted at Wave 5, specifically that with increased promotion of multiculturalism and diversity in Scotland not only within the latest advertising campaign but also more widely through Scottish Executive initiatives on immigration, the effect has been to dilute public perceptions of racism as a problem. With positive feelings being engendered by what is essentially a 'feel good' campaign promoting diversity in conjunction with campaigns such as Fresh Talent being talked about in the media, this fosters the impression for some that racism is no longer such a problem in Scotland. Demographically, there are no real differences in terms of those regarding racism as a very serious issue, other than in terms of social class where amongst DEs in particular, the level of agreement is higher (12% compared to 5% amongst C1s and C2s and 6% amongst ABs).

What constitutes racism

2.23 The extent to which individuals may acknowledge that they are racist will partly depend on their assessment of what constitutes racist attitudes or behaviour. How far does this need to go in thought, word or deed to be labelled 'racist'? Respondents were presented with four scenarios and asked to label each as either not racist, slightly racist or strongly racist in their perception. Opinions are summarised in the Figures shown overleaf. The two indirect verbal statements were added at Wave 2 whilst the more direct statements were amended at Wave 6.

Figure 2.1 - Rating of behaviour as racist: Using terms such as 'Chinky' or 'Paki' in relation to food, shops etc
Base: All respondents [N (Unweighted) : Wave 2 - 1045; Wave 3 - 905; Wave 4 - 1022; Wave 5 - 941; W6-1011; W7-1033]

Figure 2.1 - Rating of behaviour as racist: Using terms such as 'Chinky' or 'Paki' in relation to food, shops etc image

Figure 2.2 - Rating of behaviour as racist: Speaking negatively about people from different ethnic backgrounds to your family or friends in private
Base: All respondents [N (Unweighted) : Wave 2 - 1045; Wave 3 - 905; Wave 4 - 1022; Wave 5 - 941; W6-1011; W7-1033]

Figure 2.2 - Rating of behaviour as racist: Speaking negatively about people from different ethnic backgrounds to your family or friends in private image

2.24 Significant movements were recorded at Wave 5 in terms of the two indirect forms of racist behaviour, namely: Using terms such as 'Chinky' or 'Paki' in relation to food, shops etc and Speaking negatively about people from different ethnic backgrounds to your family or friends in private. These trends have continued across Waves 6 and 7 where around a quarter at each of the three latest waves perceive Using terms such as 'Chinky' or 'Paki' in relation to food, shops etc as Strongly racist. Likewise, there has been a trend upwards in those perceiving Speaking negatively about people from different ethnic backgrounds to your family or friends in private as Strongly racist, reaching 32% at this latest Wave. These results do suggest that there has been a real movement over time in terms of the unacceptability of indirect verbal racist comments.

Figure 2.3 - Rating of behaviour as racist: Being verbally offensive to people from other ethnic backgrounds in person on account of their appearance or ethnicity
Base: All respondents [N (Unweighted) : W6-1011; W7-1033]

Figure 2.3 - Rating of behaviour as racist: Being verbally offensive to people from other ethnic backgrounds in person on account of their appearance or ethnicity image

Figure 2.4 - Rating of behaviour as racist: Using violence towards people from other ethnic backgrounds or their property on account of their appearance or ethnicity
Base: All respondents [N (Unweighted) : W6-1011; W7-1033]

Figure 2.4 - Rating of behaviour as racist: Using violence towards people from other ethnic backgrounds or their property on account of their appearance or ethnicity image

2.25 The wording of the two statements in Figure 2.3 and 2.4 was changed prior to Wave 6 and as such, results can only being compared across the two latest waves. Although the majority at each wave regarded Being verbally offensive to people from different ethnic backgrounds in person on account of their appearance or ethnicity (68%) and Using violence towards people from other ethnic backgrounds or their property on account of their appearance or ethnicity (80%) as Strongly racist, for around one in ten, both of these forms of behaviour were deemed as Not racist.

Wider race-related issues

2.26 Respondents were asked to indicate the strength of their agreement or disagreement with a series of attitude statements concerning race-related issues. A five point scale of 'agree strongly' (+2) - 'disagree strongly' (-2) was used for rating purposes. The table in Appendix 2 gives the range of values ascribed to ratings in calculating mean scores (in brackets in top row) and presents a summary of the statements used. At Wave 2, the wording on a number of statements was altered from that used at Wave 1 and some additional statements were included. This accounts for the lack of comparable data from Wave 1 in some cases. In addition, a number of new statements were added prior to Wave 5 and thus only two waves of tracking data are currently available for these measures.

2.27 Within some of the attitude statements which have been asked since Wave 2, a number of trends began to emerge at the most recent waves, most of which would appear to be positive. The statements on which these positive movements apply however are not entirely advertising related thus suggesting that something other than advertising is contributing to these movements.

2.28 Specific positive movements include People who come to live in Scotland from other ethnic and cultural backgrounds enrich Scottish society. Indeed, since Wave 2, agreement with this statement has increased from 50% to 62% 3 at the latest wave, which is a significant increase. This therefore suggests that the population of Scotland is increasingly identifying with the positive contributions other cultures can have on society and thus becoming more embracing of multiculturalism.

2.29 There also seems to be an increased recognition of the role which everyone has to play in making multiculturalism work within Scotland. Specifically, there have been increases over time in those agreeing with three key statements: People from minority ethnic backgrounds living in Scotland should do more to fit in with the Scottish way of life (76% at Wave 7), Scottish people should do more to respect the different cultures of other ethnic groups who live here (74% at Wave 7) and People in Scotland ought to do more to stop racism occurring here (80% at Wave 7).

2.30 The increased agreement with these three statements indicates that the public sees a role for all groups in Scotland to respect each other. On the one hand there is a feeling that those from ethnic minorities should assimilate with Scottish society (although not to the detriment of their own culture) whilst Scottish people should do more to accept others and stop racism from happening.

2.31 Within the four new statements which were added at Wave 5, there were high levels of recognition that Scotland benefits from having people from a wide range of ethnic backgrounds living and working here (70% agreeing at Waves 6 and 7), that People in Scotland who abuse others from different ethnic backgrounds let Scotland down and should not be tolerated (88% at Wave 7) and People granted asylum in Scotland have a right to be here and should be made welcome (69% at Wave 7). However, there are still around one in ten (13% at Wave 7) who agreed that they would feel uncomfortable mixing with people from ethnic backgrounds different to my own which indicates some reluctance amongst a minority.

2.32 When the results are explored amongst those who had seen/heard an advert from the Scottish Executive campaign and those who had not, those who had seen or heard an advert were generally more positive, as was seen at the Wave 5 stage of research. There is also a suggestion that some of the statements on which they are more positive are the statements which Canada in particular portrays, for example People in Scotland ought to do more to stop racism occurring here and I would be unhappy if someone from a different cultural or ethnic background to me moved in to live next door. However, not all the statements on which those who had seen or heard an advert were more positive were statements which related specifically to the advertising. Figures which show these differences are outlined below.

4Figure 2.5 - Attitudes towards race related issues - Agreement
Base: All respondents

Figure 2.5 - Attitudes towards race related issues - Agreement image

Figure 2.6 - Attitudes towards race related issues - Agreement
Base: All respondents

Figure 2.6 - Attitudes towards race related issues - Agreement image

Figure 2.7 - Attitudes towards race related issues - Agreement
Base: All respondents

Figure 2.7 - Attitudes towards race related issues - Agreement image