Faith Communities and Local Government in Glasgow

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1. Glasgow's Religious Communities

Key findings:

  • Most Glaswegians describe their current religion as Christian although almost one in four describe their current religion as 'none'.
  • Other religious traditions make up about 5% of Glasgow's population, and the city is a focal point for Scotland's Muslim, Hindu and Sikh communities.
  • Some religious communities have a relatively older age profile (notably the Church of Scotland and Jewish communities) whilst others are relatively younger (notably the Muslim and Sikh communities).
  • Some religious communities are disproportionately found in certain parts of the city. The Kelvin area contains relatively large proportions of people from the 'Other Christian', Buddhist, Hindu and 'Another religion' communities, as well as from those of no religion. The Southside proves a focus for the Muslim, Jewish and Sikh communities.
1.1 Size of Glasgow's Religious Communities

1.1.1 According to the 2001 Census two-thirds of Glaswegians (65%) describe their current religion as Christian, with most of these people belonging to either the Church of Scotland (32%) or Catholic (29%) traditions. Rather fewer (4%) described themselves as some other form of Christian (the make up of this group is further considered below). Of those who did not regard themselves as some form of Christian most gave their current religion as 'none' (23%), and about one in twelve (8%) did not answer the question. Other religious traditions make up about 5% of the Glasgow population, with the most common of these traditions being Islam. Some 18,000 Glaswegians described their current religion as Islam.

1.1.2 As table 1.1 shows there is some disparity between Glaswegians' accounts of their current religion and their accounts of their 'religion of upbringing'. In other words there is considerable evidence that many people change their religion within their lifetimes. This is considered in closer detail in Section 2, and it suffices here to note that in overall terms almost all of this movement is between the Christian categories and 'no religion'. Growth elsewhere is, in absolute terms, very modest indeed.

Table 1.1(a) Current religion and religion of upbringing in Glasgow

Current religion

Religion of upbringing

Change

Number

%

Number

%

Number

%

None

131,189

22.7

78,151

13.5

+ 53,038

+ 67.9

Church of Scotland

182,172

31.5

208,449

36.1

- 26,277

- 12.6

Roman Catholic

168,733

29.2

177,688

30.7

- 8,955

- 5.0

Other Christian

23,488

4.1

26,498

4.6

- 3,010

- 11.4

Buddhist

1,194

0.2

929

0.2

+ 265

+ 28.5

Hindu

1,209

0.2

1,280

0.2

- 71

- 5.5

Jewish

1,083

0.2

1,279

0.2

- 196

- 15.3

Muslim

17,792

3.1

17,667

3.1

+ 125

+ 0.7

Sikh

2,374

0.4

2,433

0.4

- 59

- 2.4

Another Religion

3,799

0.7

1,061

0.2

+ 2,738

+ 258.1

Not Answered

44,836

7.8

62,434

10.8

Base

577,869

100.1

577,869

100

Notes to table
Percentages need not add up to 100 due to rounding.
Source: Census of Scotland, 2001

1.1.3 At the present time, available Census data do not allow us to disaggregate the 'other Christian' category. We can, however, go some way in illustrating what kinds of religious affiliation may be aggregated in this category with reference to the Glasgow Council study on Sectarianism, Intolerance and Racism in Glasgow, 2002. This study contained 44 respondents who chose the category 'Christian - no denomination', 44 who were categorised as 'other Christian' respondents, and 10 who fell into a further category of 'other'. In most of these 54 cases, however, further data was collected which allows us to identify more closely the religious tradition to which these respondents regard themselves as belonging.

Table 1.1(b) Indications of 'other Christian' and 'other religions' in Glasgow

Number

Number

Protestants

46

Generic Christians

45

Free Presbyterian/Free Church

15

Christian - no denomination

44

Free Churches

2

Believe, but not adherent

1

Episcopalian/Anglican

11

Non-Trinitarian Christians

3

Baptist

4

Jehovah's Witness

3

Congregationalist

4

Other traditions

4

Quaker

1

Pagan

1

Brethren

1

Atheist

1

Evangelical

1

Agnostic

1

Gospel Hall

1

Humanist

1

New Covenanter

1

Apostolic

1

Protestant - no denomination

3

Pentecostal

1

Total number

98

Notes to table
Source: Sectarianism, Intolerance and Racism in Glasgow, 2002

1.1.4 It seems likely, therefore, that a very substantial proportion of the 23,488 Glaswegians enumerated in the Census as 'other Christian' will view their current religion in terms of a generalised Christian identity rather than in terms of a more specific denominational label. Much of the remainder will be made up of the smaller Protestant denominations.

1.1.5 What though of the 3,799 Glaswegians enumerated as 'another religion'? Here we are on much more uncertain ground, although the evidence emerging from the Census (discussed in the Preliminary Remarks above) is that this category may include a very wide variety of religions, including variations on the categories for which 'tick box' options were provided.

1.2 Glasgow City in Context

1.2.1 How does Glasgow compare to other parts of Scotland with regards to its religious mix? In common with other parts of the industrial west of Scotland, Glasgow contains a relatively high proportion of Catholics (29%), at a level approximately twice that found across Scotland as a whole (16%). Partly because of the large Catholic population, Glasgow - again in a feature shared across the West of Scotland - contains a little fewer people who gave their religion as 'none' (23%) than across Scotland as a whole (28%). In this respect Glasgow is, loosely speaking, 'more religious' than the other three cities of Scotland which have relatively high proportions of respondents answering 'none' (Aberdeen 42%; Dundee 29%; Edinburgh 37%), and 'less religious' than the neighbouring areas of North Lanarkshire ('none' 17%) and Inverclyde ('none' 14%).

1.2.2 With regard to other major traditions, Glasgow has the highest proportion of Muslim persons of any local authority area in Scotland, although at 3% this is not marked. In proportionate terms the size of the non-western faiths are not striking in Glasgow. When we consider absolute numbers, however, Glasgow emerges as an important population centre for several of Scotland's religious traditions. Table 1.2 shows that whilst 11% of all Scotland's population lives in Glasgow, this varies considerably across faith group. We find, unsurprisingly, that Glasgow is home to 21% of Scotland's Catholics, twice as many as we would have found if all religious groups were distributed evenly across Scotland.

1.2.3 More interestingly, Glasgow emerges as a key population centre for three other religious traditions. Amongst Scotland's Hindus just over one fifth (22%) live in Glasgow, and amongst Scotland's Sikhs (36%) and Muslims (42%) the importance of Glasgow in population terms is even more striking.

Table 1.2 Glasgow's place in Scotland's religions

Scotland

Glasgow

Glasgow as % of religion

Total

5,062,011

577,869

11.4

Church of Scotland

2,146,251

182,172

8.5

Roman Catholic

803,732

168,733

21.0

Other Christian

344,562

23,488

6.8

Buddhist

6,830

1,194

17.5

Hindu

5,564

1,209

21.7

Jewish

6,448

1,083

16.8

Muslim

42,557

17,792

41.8

Sikh

6,572

2,374

36.1

Notes to table
Source: Census of Scotland, 2001

1.2.4 Perhaps surprisingly, given the historic importance of Glasgow to Jewish life in Scotland, Glasgow is not such a key population centre for Scotland's Jewish population. Largely this is because most of "Glasgow's" Jewish population live within the East Renfrewshire council area. Whilst there are 1,083 Jewish persons in the Glasgow Council area there are 3,128 in East Renfrewshire. Most of East Renfrewshire's Jewish population live in the wards leading between the city's boundaries into Giffnock and Newton Mearns. In other words there are a relatively significant number of Jewish people in areas merging into suburban Glasgow.

1.3 Sex and Age Profiles

1.3.1 The Census recorded that a majority of Glaswegians, in line with Scotland more broadly, were female. In 2001, the gender balance between women and men in Glasgow was 53/47 %. Given strong associations between Christian religious activity and gender we might expect to find evidence of some 'feminisation' in the current religion measure. Indeed, this is precisely what we find amongst the Christian categories, although we find quite the reverse in the other major faiths and in the 'no religion' category as is shown by Table 1.3a:

Table 1.3(a) Gender composition of Glasgow's religious groups

% by row

% female

% male

Base

All Glaswegians

52.9

47.1

577,869

None

49.9

50.1

131,189

Church of Scotland

54.6

45.4

182,172

Roman Catholic

54.5

45.5

168,733

Other Christian

58.2

41.8

23,488

Buddhist

47.3

52.7

1,194

Hindu

46.3

53.7

1,209

Jewish

51.0

49.0

1,083

Muslim

47.8

52.2

17,792

Sikh

49.1

50.9

2,374

Notes to table
Source: Census of Scotland, 2001

1.3.2 There are quite striking age variations between the religious groups, as summarised by table 1.3b. Some religious groups have a relatively 'old' profile: for example 9% of Christian respondents are aged 75 or more, with a further 17% aged 60-74.

1.3.3 Glasgow's Jewish population are more strikingly old, with 21% aged 75 or more and a further 16% aged 60-74. The Jewish population of East Renfrewshire (where most of "Glasgow's" Jewish community live) on the other hand have a markedly younger profile than those in the City proper. This suggests that younger Jewish people have proved more likely to move out to the suburbs beyond the city boundaries than many of their elders.

1.3.4 Thus 26% of Christians and a striking 38% of Jewish-persons are aged 60 or more compared to 20% of Glasgow's population as a whole. By contrast, relatively few Buddhists (11%), Sikhs (10%) or Hindus (8%) are aged 60 or more, and the proportion proves particularly low (5%) amongst Glasgow's Muslims:

Table 1.3(b) Age composition of Glasgow's religious groups

% by column

All People

None

All Christians

Buddhist

Hindu

Jewish

Muslim

Sikh

0-15

18.4

19.8

15.3

8.9

16.4

8.0

31.7

27.1

16-24

13.4

17.4

11.6

18.3

18.6

10.2

18.6

17.3

25-59

47.7

53.2

47.4

62.1

56.4

44.3

44.3

45.9

60-74

13.4

6.8

16.8

8.1

6.5

16.2

4.8

7.3

75 +

7.0

2.8

8.9

2.6

2.1

21.3

0.6

2.4

TOTAL

99.9

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

Base

577,869

131,189

374,393

1,194

1,209

1,083

17,792

2,374

Notes to table
Percentages need not add up to 100 due to rounding.
Source: Census of Scotland, 2001

1.3.5 By sharp contrast, several religious groups have a disproportionately 'young' profile. Around one fifth (18%) of all Glaswegians are children ( i.e. aged 0-15 years), but this proportion rises markedly amongst Sikhs (27%) and, strikingly, amongst Muslims (32%).

1.3.6 Turning these data around and focussing on the youngest and oldest groups reveals the considerable changes wrought in Glasgow's religious composition over the past decades, and hints towards future trends. Table 1.3c shows the proportions of children and older people falling into each religious group:

Table 1.3(c) Religious composition of children and older people

% by column

All people

Children (0-15 years)

Older people (75+ years)

None

22.7

24.4

9.1

Church of Scotland

31.5

23.0

50.2

Roman Catholic

29.2

28.3

27.4

Other Christian

4.1

2.7

5.0

Buddhist

0.2

0.1

0.1

Hindu

0.2

0.2

0.1

Jewish

0.2

0.1

0.6

Muslim

3.1

5.3

0.3

Sikh

0.4

0.6

0.1

Another religion

0.7

0.2

0.1

Not answered

7.8

15.2

7.2

TOTAL

100.1

100.1

100.2

Base

577,869

106,498

40,404

Notes to table
Percentages need not add up to 100 due to rounding.
Source: Census of Scotland, 2001

1.3.7 This table reveals the marked differences in religious composition at either end of the age scale. Glasgow's older people are overwhelmingly Christian (about 83% describe themselves as such), and mostly Protestant (half of all older people are Church of Scotland). Whilst a majority of children (53%) are Christian it is likely that (unless there is an unlikely break with religious trends) Christian children will constitute a minority in the decades to come. Protestantism is strikingly under-represented amongst children, which reflects the very sharp decline in Protestant church membership and affiliation from the early to mid-1960s.

1.4 Geographic Distributions within the City: Parliamentary Boundaries

1.4.1 The various religious groups are not evenly spread across the city, with some of the smaller communities, in particular, found in certain areas of the city. Here geography is broken down firstly across the ten Parliamentary constituencies within Glasgow. It should be noted here that the boundaries of these constituencies do not precisely coincide with that of the Council area. The Parliamentary areas contain 55,090 persons living (more or less immediately) outwith the City's municipal boundaries, in particular in the Rutherglen constituency. Rutherglen in fact contains only a small area of the Council area, namely part of the Toryglen and King's Park wards. We have, however, decided not to omit Rutherglen from our analysis. The appendix contains more information on Parliamentary and ward boundaries.

Tables 1.4a and 1.4b illustrate the religious make up of each of these ten constituencies.

Table 1.4(a) Religious composition of Parliamentary constituencies

% by column

Anniesland

Baillieston

Cathcart

Govan

Kelvin

None

24.0

17.7

21.9

24.6

33.8

Church of Scotland

38.0

38.1

31.0

26.8

26.1

Catholic

23.5

32.8

31.8

22.4

20.0

Other Christian

4.7

2.5

3.9

4.4

7.3

Buddhist

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.3

0.6

Hindu

0.3

*

0.1

0.3

0.4

Jewish

0.1

*

0.5

0.6

0.2

Muslim

1.0

0.3

3.2

11.7

3.0

Sikh

0.5

0.1

0.5

1.2

0.5

Another Religion

0.4

0.2

0.5

0.9

1.8

Not answered

7.5

8.2

6.5

6.8

6.4

TOTAL

100.1

100

100

100

100.1

Base

63964

63281

63226

60393

65625

Notes to table
* denotes a percentage falling below 0.1%
Percentages need not add up to 100 due to rounding.
Source: Census of Scotland, 2001

Table 1.4(b) Religious composition of Parliamentary constituencies

% by column

Maryhill

Pollok

Rutherglen

Shettleston

Springburn

None

24.3

20.7

20.5

19.0

18.9

Church of Scotland

28.5

34.5

37.1

29.4

31.3

Catholic

30.1

31.9

30.8

34.6

34.3

Other Christian

4.3

3.6

3.4

3.1

2.8

Buddhist

0.3

0.1

*

0.1

0.2

Hindu

0.4

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

Jewish

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

*

Muslim

2.7

1.0

0.7

3.7

1.9

Sikh

0.4

0.2

0.1

0.3

0.2

Another Religion

1.1

0.3

0.2

0.5

0.4

Not answered

7.9

7.6

7.1

9.2

9.9

TOTAL

100.1

100.1

100.1

100.1

100

Base

62305

63616

64940

57437

68172

Notes to table
* denotes a percentage falling below 0.1%
Percentages need not add up to 100 due to rounding.
Source: Census of Scotland, 2001

1.4.2 No single religious group holds a majority in any of the ten constituencies, although the Christian traditions, when taken together, make up a majority in all of them. The Christian presence ranges from around three-quarters of all persons in Baillieston (73%), Rutherglen (71%), and Pollok (70%) to only just over half of all persons in Govan (54%) and Kelvin (53%). In six constituencies Church of Scotland identifiers outnumber Catholics. In the remaining four constituencies Catholics outnumber the Church of Scotland. It should be noted, however, that in most constituencies neither of these two denominational groups are markedly more numerous than the other.

1.4.3 Kelvin contains by far the greatest proportion of persons of no religion (34%), around double the proportions found in Baillieston (18%), Shettleston (19%), and Springburn (19%).

1.4.4 The five other major traditions (Buddhists, Hindus, Jews, Muslims and Sikhs) together account for 4% of all persons in the Glasgow Council area, and exceed this proportion in only two constituencies. In Kelvin they account for 5% of the population, and in Govan 14%. Relatively few persons from these groups live in Rutherglen (1%) or Baillieston (just half of one per cent).

1.4.5 Table 1.4a illustrates the religious composition of each area, but it is useful to consider this data in another way - how each individual religious group is spread across the ten constituencies. The ten constituencies are each of approximately similar size, so the proportion of each religion found in each constituency - if people were evenly spread across the city regardless of their current religion - would approximate to 10% or thereabouts).

1.4.6 As tables 1.4c and 1.4d illustrate, we find a broadly even spread across the constituencies amongst the three largest groups - Church of Scotland, Catholic and no religion.

Table 1.4(c) Religious groups by Parliamentary constituency

% by column

No religion

Church of Scotland

Roman Catholic

Other Christian

Anniesland

10.7

12.0

8.1

11.7

Baillieston

7.8

11.8

11.2

6.3

Cathcart

9.7

9.6

10.9

9.7

Govan

10.4

7.9

7.3

10.5

Kelvin

15.5

8.4

7.1

18.9

Maryhill

10.6

8.7

10.1

10.6

Pollok

9.2

10.8

11.0

9.1

Rutherglen

9.3

11.9

10.8

8.8

Shettleston

7.6

8.3

10.8

7.1

Springburn

9.0

10.5

12.6

7.4

TOTAL

99.8

99.9

99.9

100.1

Base

142741

203348

184696

25470

Notes to table
Percentages need not add up to 100 due to rounding.
Source: Census of Scotland, 2001

1.4.7 One distinctive constituency is Glasgow Kelvin which is a little 'over-represented' amongst those of no religion (16% of whom were found in Kelvin), and more markedly so amongst the 'Other Christian' category (19% of whom were found in Kelvin).

1.4.8 Considerably more variation is found amongst the remaining categories. Kelvin is also a key geographic focus for Buddhists (the constituency contains almost one-third - 31% - of the city's Buddhists). In some part this may be reflected by the area's student population - 19% of Kelvin residents described themselves as students in the Census; this rose to 41% of Kelvin's Buddhists. There may be some overlap here with the fact there is, in Glasgow terms, a relatively large ethnic-Chinese presence in the constituency (see section 2.3 on the links between ethnicity and religion).

1.4.9 Hindus are disproportionately found in Kelvin and in neighbouring Maryhill (42% of Glasgow's Hindus are found in these two areas), with a lesser concentration in the Southside constituency of Govan (17%). Glasgow's Jewish population is concentrated in the City's southern suburbs, with over half (60%) found in Cathcart and Govan. These constituencies run into the areas of East Renfrewshire council area (discussed in section 1.2) containing a relatively large Jewish population. Glasgow's Muslim community is the most markedly concentrated religious group, with 39% found in Govan. Likewise, Govan features a striking focus for Glasgow's Sikh population, with almost a third of the city's Sikhs (31%) found there. A disproportionate proportion of those of 'Another religion' are found in Kelvin:

Table 1.4(d) Religious groups by Parliamentary constituency

Buddhist

Hindu

Jewish

Muslim

Sikh

Another religion

Anniesland

6.5

15.4

5.0

3.7

12.0

7.1

Baillieston

3.0

1.0

1.3

1.1

2.6

2.8

Cathcart

5.6

6.1

27.8

11.2

12.9

8.4

Govan

12.1

17.0

32.0

39.0

30.6

13.4

Kelvin

31.0

22.4

12.2

10.7

12.7

29.8

Maryhill

15.5

19.8

4.3

9.3

10.9

16.9

Pollok

5.3

2.4

5.3

3.6

4.6

4.0

Rutherglen

2.5

2.7

4.8

2.4

2.5

3.7

Shettleston

6.1

5.8

5.1

11.7

6.0

7.0

Springburn

12.3

7.4

2.1

7.3

5.2

6.9

TOTAL

99.9

100

99.9

100

100

100

Base

1223

1239

1125

18066

2418

3923

Notes to table
Percentages need not add up to 100 due to rounding.
Source: Census of Scotland, 2001

1.4.10 A key feature of religion in Glasgow is thus the concentration of the smaller religious traditions in certain parts of the city: in Kelvin (for Buddhists, Sikhs, and for those of 'Another religion'); the Southside (for Jews), and in particular Govan (for Muslims and Sikhs). Such concentrations may have particular consequences for the provisions of council services.

1.5 Geographic Distributions within the City: Wards

1.5.1 It is also possible to investigate the geographic patterns of Glasgow's faith communities at a more localised level by examining council wards. However, as Glasgow comprises a very large number of council wards (79) we cannot examine them all in any great detail in this report. Here we wish to note only the more interesting or important wards in terms of religious distributions in the city.

1.5.2 Turning first to those Glaswegians who described their current religion as 'none', tables 1.5a and 1.5b show wards where this particular group comprises an unusually large or small proportion of the population:

Table 1.5(a) 'No religion' as a proportion of council wards (selected)

'No religion' - Highest concentrations

Ward

%

Number

Ward population

Hillhead

43.9

2621

5969

Hyndland

40.8

2789

6830

North Kelvin

37.6

2655

7067

Kelvingrove

37.3

2950

7907

Partick

37.2

2530

6796

Hayburn

36.8

2579

7007

Langside

34.1

2339

6869

Notes to table
Source: Census of Scotland, 2001

1.5.3 Table 1.5a shows the seven wards where persons of 'no religion' comprise over one-third of the population. Six of these wards can be found in a cluster to the west of the city centre - Hillhead, Hyndland, North Kelvin, Kelvingrove, Partick and Hayburn. Together these six wards contain around 12% of Glasgow's 'no religion' population. If we include the adjacent wards of Woodlands and Anderston in this cluster, it accounts for one in six of the city's no religion population (16%). Whilst this group is spread across the city, then, there is considerable evidence of a west-of-centre cluster, perhaps comprising (in part) the 'student' areas of Glasgow. This area comprises much of the Kelvin parliamentary constituency and the adjoining parts of Maryhill parliamentary constituency (in particular the Partick and Woodlands wards). For ease of shorthand this report will henceforth refer to this general area as 'Kelvin-Woodlands'.

1.5.4 It should be noted at this point that here we are ranking wards in terms of the proportions in each who claim to be of 'no religion'. As ward size varies, of course, it may be that there are other wards in the city where in numerical terms this group is also notable. This is true, for example, of Woodlands where we find 2,393 persons of 'no religion', comprising 32% of the ward's population. Thus, numerically speaking, we find more 'no religion' persons in Woodlands than in Langside, though this is not true when we are speaking proportionately. In the following analysis we shall report primarily on proportions but will draw attention to the numerical size of ward's faith groups where appropriate.

Table 1.5(b) 'No religion' as a proportion of council wards (selected)

'No religion' - Lowest concentrations

Ward

%

Number

Ward population

Toryglen

16.3

1047

6441

Tollcross Park

15.7

1133

7217

Baillieston

15.7

1275

8122

Mount Vernon

15.4

1250

8124

Shettleston

15.1

1197

7941

Gartcraig

15.0

1158

7723

Wallacewell

14.9

1129

7554

Notes to table
Source: Census of Scotland, 2001

1.5.5 Table 1.5b demonstrates the relatively even spread of the 'no religion' group across Glasgow. Even in those wards where its proportions fall below one sixth of the population, we still find numerically large numbers. Indeed in only one of the city's 79 wards does the number of 'no religion' persons fall below one thousand. Even here, the 904 found in Bridgeton & Dalmarnock reflects the relatively small population size of the ward rather than a particularly low proportion of persons of 'no religion'.

1.5.6 Just under one-third of Glaswegians (32%) described their current religion as 'Church of Scotland', and Tables 1.5c and 1.5d shows the seven wards in which this proportion is two-fifths or more, and the half dozen wards where it fell below one-fifth:

Table 1.5(c) Church of Scotland as a proportion of council wards (selected)

Church of Scotland - Highest concentrations

Ward

%

Number

Ward population

Blairdardie

43.8

3222

7358

Mount Vernon

42.3

3440

8124

Bridgeton/Dalmarnock

41.7

2227

5338

Knightswood Park

41.5

3123

7522

Jordanhill

40.1

3128

7795

Knightswood South

39.7

2794

7029

Garrowhill

39.6

3558

8981

Notes to table
Source: Census of Scotland, 2001

1.5.7 It is more difficult to perceive any particular clustering amongst the Church of Scotland group - perhaps unsurprising given its numerical size. It might also be noted that in no ward does this group constitute anything close to a majority. It is true that four of the six wards with the highest concentration of Presbyterians (Blairdardie; Knightswood Park; Knightswood South; Jordanhill) are clustered on the far north-western portion of the city (in the Anniesland parliamentary area), but we do not find markedly high Church of Scotland concentrations in adjacent wards (such as Drumry; Summerhall; Anniesland; or Yoker).

1.5.8 In numerical terms we find that the Presbyterian population exceeds 3,000 in seven wards (five are shown in table 1.5c, the others are Baillieston and Shettleston wards), and more than 2,000 in 51 more. In the remaining 21 wards the Church of Scotland population exceeds 1,000. So there is little evidence that any area of the city is particularly 'Presbyterian'.

1.5.9 In terms of the areas of the city where the proportions of Presbyterians are relatively low, there seem to be two of note. One is the area we have already described as representing a cluster of people of 'no religion' (the west-of-centre area loosely described as 'Kelvin-Woodlands' and including Woodlands, Kelvingrove and Hillhead amongst other wards). The other is a 'Southside' area including Govanhill, Strathbungo and Pollokshields East. As we shall see the relatively small size of Presbyterians in these wards (and, indeed, in adjacent wards) reflects the relative concentration of other faith groups:

Table 1.5(d) Church of Scotland as a proportion of council wards (selected)

Church of Scotland - Lowest concentrations

Ward

%

Number

Ward population

Govanhill

19.0

1485

7807

Woodlands

18.7

1403

7504

Kelvingrove

18.3

1447

7907

Hillhead

17.8

1064

5969

Strathbungo

16.4

1201

7302

Pollokshields East

13.8

1120

8097

Notes to table
Source: Census of Scotland, 2001

1.5.10 Just under one-third of the Glasgow population (29%) were enumerated as Catholic, and again Catholics are spread widely across Glasgow. However, as table 1.5e suggests, there are some areas of the city in which Catholics are more concentrated. The table shows those wards where Catholics comprise around two-fifths or more of the population. The table suggests three particular areas of Catholic concentration: the wards on the north-eastern edge of the city (Milton; Robroyston; and Wallacewell); in part of the Southside (Hutchesontown and Toryglen); and on the south-eastern edge of the city (Castlemilk and Carmunnock).

Table 1.5(e) Catholics as a proportion of council wards (selected)

Catholics - Highest concentrations

Ward

%

Number

Ward population

Toryglen

45.5

2929

6441

Hutchesontown

43.0

2871

6682

Carmunnock

39.9

2910

7289

Robroyston

39.5

3525

8915

Wallacewell

38.9

2937

7554

Milton

38.1

2740

7184

Castlemilk

38.1

2646

6947

Notes to table
Source: Census of Scotland, 2001

1.5.11 However, it should be stressed that Catholics comprise 33-38% of the population in a further 23 of the city's wards, and these are spread across much of the rest of the city rather than being clustered in any particular areas. As we found with the Church of Scotland group, it seems difficult to identify areas of the city which are particularly 'Catholic'. There is another point of similarity between the Catholic and Presbyterian groups. Catholics too, are found in relatively low proportions in the 'Kelvin-Woodlands' area (including, amongst other wards, Kelvindale, Hyndland, Woodlands and Hillhead) where the 'no religion' group were relatively well represented. The ward where the fewest proportion of Catholics are found is the same as that for Presbyterians - Pollokshields East:

Table 1.5(f) Catholics as a proportion of council wards (selected)

Catholics - Lowest concentrations

Ward

%

Number

Ward population

Kelvindale

16.4

1089

6659

Hyndland

16.0

1090

6830

Woodlands

15.9

1196

7504

Jordanhill

15.1

1174

7795

Hillhead

13.9

829

5969

Pollokshields East

11.8

953

8097

Notes to table
Source: Census of Scotland, 2001

1.5.12 The 'other Christian' category comprised 4% of Glaswegians, but because of the heterogeneous (and unknown) character of this group it is difficult to make many specific points about their dispersion across the city. In numerical terms this group ranges between a high of 740 persons (in Kelvingrove), and a low of 153 persons (in Ashfield). Across all of the city's wards this group comprises between 2-10% of the population.

1.5.13 Table 1.5g, however, does show a seeming cluster of 'other Christians' in precisely those wards where we have found a cluster of persons of 'no religion', that is the area we have called 'Kelvin-Woodlands'. All six of the wards noted in table 1.5g are found in this area. If we take these six wards together, and include the adjacent wards of Partick, Hayburn, and Woodlands, then we find that this area comprises over a fifth (22%) of the 'other Christian' group:

Table 1.5(g) 'Other Christian' as a proportion of council wards (selected)

'Other Christian' - Highest concentrations

Ward

%

Number

Ward population

Hillhead

10.2

606

5969

Kelvingrove

9.4

740

7907

Hyndland

9.0

616

6830

Merchant City

8.2

597

7255

North Kelvin

8.1

573

7067

Kelvindale

8.0

536

6659

Notes to table
Source: Census of Scotland, 2001

1.5.14 Turning now to Glasgow's other religious traditions, it will be recalled that around 1,200 Glaswegians described their current religion as Buddhist. In only four wards do Buddhists number 50 persons are more, and these are shown in Table 1.5h. It might be noted that although the numbers are fairly small, the four wards fall into the 'Kelvin-Woodlands' area we have already noted as having fairly high 'no religion' and 'other Christian' populations:

Table 1.5(h) Buddhists as a proportion of council wards (selected)

Buddhists - Highest concentrations

Ward

%

Number

Ward population

Anderston

1.2

81

6492

Merchant City

1.1

78

7255

Kelvingrove

1.1

85

7907

Woodlands

0.7

55

7504

Notes to table
Source: Census of Scotland, 2001

1.5.15 In more than half the city's wards (41 out of 79) the number of Buddhists fall into single figures, and in one further ward (Summerhill) we find no householders describing their current religion as Buddhism.

1.5.16 Glasgow's Hindus also numbered around 1,200 and table 1.5i shows the seven wards containing around 50 Hindu persons or more. Here two areas are of note (though again the small numbers here should be stressed). Yet again we find that the area described as 'Kelvin-Woodlands' is represented here, with four wards falling in this general area (Woodlands; Kelvindale; Kelvingrove; Merchant City), and another representing a westward continuation of it (Jordanhill). Also represented are two wards on the Southside (Strathbungo and Maxwell Park), both of which border Pollokshields East:

Table 1.5(i) Hindus as a proportion of council wards (selected)

Hindus - Highest concentrations

Ward

%

Number

Ward population

Woodlands

1.7

128

7504

Kelvindale

1.2

82

6659

Jordanhill

0.9

68

7795

Strathbungo

0.8

62

7302

Kelvingrove

0.7

55

7907

Maxwell Park

0.7

50

7200

Merchant City

0.7

49

7255

Notes to table
Source: Census of Scotland, 2001

1.5.17 In more than half the city's wards (38 out of 79) the number of Hindus fall into single figures, and in ten further wards there are no householders who describe themselves as Hindus.

1.5.18 We have already discussed the concentration of Glasgow's Jewish population on the southern fringes of the city, and this is further illustrated by table 1.5j. The wards containing at least 50 Jewish persons are clustered on the southern Southside extending out to where the city's boundaries meet East Renfrewshire. If we add to these wards the others in this area of the city (Mount Florida; Govanhill; Pollokshields East; Darnley; and Carnwadric) we find that this area contains almost two-thirds (64%) of Glasgow's Jewish community:

Table 1.5(j) Jewish persons as a proportion of council wards (selected)

Jewish persons - Highest concentrations

Ward

%

Number

Ward population

Maxwell Park

1.7

121

7200

Langside

1.6

111

6869

Newlands

1.4

111

7966

Pollokshaws

0.9

64

7241

Strathbungo

0.8

58

7302

Battlefield

0.7

53

7199

Cathcart

0.7

55

7856

Notes to table
Source: Census of Scotland, 2001

1.5.19 In more than half the city's wards (47 out of 79) the number of Jewish persons fall into single figures, and in eight further wards there are no householders who describe themselves as Jewish.

1.5.20 Glasgow's Muslims, too, prove to be concentrated upon the city's Southside. Whilst 3% of Glaswegians describe themselves as Muslim, eight of the city's wards contain a Muslim population of at least 8% (as shown in table 1.5k). Six of these wards comprise a wedge-shaped area on the Southside, running north to south from Kingston to Strathbungo, and west to east from Maxwell Park to Govanhill and Battlefield. Amongst no other religious group (except, perhaps, the Jewish community) do we find such an immediately obvious and striking geographical concentration. Pollokshields East in particular, stands out as a crucial focus for the Muslim population:

Table 1.5(k) Muslims as a proportion of council wards (selected)

Muslims - Highest concentrations

Ward

%

Number

Ward population

Pollokshields East

39.2

3176

8097

Maxwell Park

17.8

1282

7200

Strathbungo

14.6

1068

7302

Woodlands

13.6

1024

7504

Govanhill

11.8

918

7807

Kingston

10.9

919

8434

Battlefield

8.8

632

7199

Royston

8.7

695

8001

Notes to table
Source: Census of Scotland, 2001

1.5.21 If we fill out this wedged area by including the five wards to its immediate south (Pollokshaws; Langside; Mount Florida; Cathcart; and Newlands) we find that this 'Southside' area contains over half (56%) of the city's Muslims.

1.5.22 There is another 'wedge' north of the river centred upon a relatively large presence of Muslims in Woodlands. If we add to Woodlands the wards running south to the river (Kelvingrove and Anderston) we find a smaller pocket of Muslims within the 'Kelvin-Woodlands' area, these three wards comprising 10% of the city's Muslim population.

1.5.23 By complete contrast the concentration of Muslims in Royston is not reflected by a notable Muslim presence in the surrounding wards. This in some large part will reflect the dispersal of asylum seekers - many of whom will be from Muslim areas of the world - to the Sighthill area of Royston ward. For example Royston contains relatively few (less than 50) persons born in Pakistan, but 856 persons born in areas where one might expect Muslim refugees to have fled from (Somalia, Middle East, Iran, Iraq, North Africa and Afghanistan). We return to place of birth in Section 2.4 below.

1.5.24 In more than half the city's wards (49 out of 79) the number of Muslim persons falls below 100, including three wards where Muslim persons are enumerated in single figures.

1.5.25 Across Glasgow Sikhs made up 0.4% of the Census population. Table 1.5l shows the six wards where the number of Sikh persons exceeds one hundred. In around one-third of the city's wards (28 out of 79) the number of Sikhs fall into single figures, and in four further wards there are no householders who describe themselves as Sikh.

Table 1.5(l) Sikhs as a proportion of council wards (selected)

Sikhs - Highest concentrations

Ward

%

Number

Ward population

Pollokshields East

3.4

275

8097

Maxwell Park

2.2

160

7200

Kingston

1.9

161

8434

Kelvindale

1.7

112

6659

Kelvingrove

1.6

127

7907

Woodlands

1.5

115

7504

Notes to table
Source: Census of Scotland, 2001

1.5.26 Here we find a broadly similar pattern to that found for the city's Muslim and Hindu communities. Although the numbers here are small, it is striking that once again we find that parts of the area we've described as 'Kelvin-Woodlands' and those parts of the Southside around Pollokshields East are key locations for the city's Sikh population.

1.5.27 Two general areas of the city, therefore, seem particularly interesting in terms of their religious mix, and merit further consideration. The two areas are 'Kelvin-Woodlands', an area lying to the north and west of the city centre; and a broad area on the Southside, centred upon Pollokshields East. Table 1.5m summarises the religious profile of the wards at the core of these two broad areas in comparison with the religious profile of Glasgow as a whole.

1.5.28 Here we define the 'core' wards of 'Kelvin-Woodlands' as: Anderston; Hayburn; Hillhead; Hyndland; Kelvingrove; North Kelvin; Partick; and Woodlands. The 'core' of our area on the 'Southside' comprises Govanhill; Kingston; Maxwell Park; Pollokshields East; and Strathbungo.

1.5.29 In all the parliamentary constituencies of Glasgow we found that Christians, when taken as a whole constitute a majority of the population. Across the city Christians account for about two-thirds (65%) of all Glaswegians. Yet across the core wards of the two identified areas, Christians are in a minority, constituting 49% in 'Kelvin-Woodlands' and 36% in 'Southside'. This is largely because of the very high concentration of the 'no religion' category in the former, and - less markedly - of Muslims in the latter:

Table 1.5(m) Religious composition of 'Kelvin-Woodlands' and 'Southside' areas

Glasgow

'Kelvin-Woodlands' area

'Southside' area

Number

%

Number

%

Number

%

None

131189

22.7

20547

37.0

9048

23.3

Church of Scotland

182172

31.5

12393

22.3

8224

21.2

Roman Catholic

168733

29.2

10205

18.4

8038

20.7

Other Christian

23488

4.1

4424

8.0

1707

4.4

Buddhist

1194

0.2

361

0.6

111

0.3

Hindu

1209

0.2

339

0.6

177

0.5

Jewish

1083

0.2

132

0.2

240

0.6

Muslim

17792

3.1

2422

4.4

7363

19.0

Sikh

2374

0.4

398

0.7

720

1.9

Another Religion

3799

0.7

1394

2.5

401

1.0

Not Answered

44836

7.8

2957

5.3

2811

7.2

Base

577869

100.1

55572

100

38840

100.1

Notes to table
Percentages need not add up to 100 due to rounding.
Source: Census of Scotland, 2001