Social Focus on Deprived Areas 2005

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Chapter One: The Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation 2004

The Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation 2004

This chapter sets the scene for the following chapters. It analyses the spread of concentrations of multiple deprivation across Scotland and also considers the interactions between concentrations of deprivation and individual deprivation measures. Some analyses included in this chapter are necessarily technical, but the key points are drawn out in the section below. Throughout the report we refer to deprived 'areas' or 'data zones'. Scotland has been divided up into 6,505 'data zones' by combining Census Output Areas ( COAs). Data zones contain, on average, 750 people and are the smallest physical area that we publish data on. By analysing data at this small area level, we have been able to develop the Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation ( SIMD) that allows us to rank areas according to how deprived they are.

Key Points

  • The 'deprivation slope' is steepest in the most deprived areas: 57 per cent of the population in the 1% most deprived areas are income deprived, compared to 47 per cent in the 5% most deprived areas, 41 per cent in the 10% most deprived areas, and 34 per cent in the 20% most deprived areas.
  • Concentrations of multiple deprivation are predominantly found in Glasgow City. Almost 70 per cent of the 5% most deprived areas; 50 per cent of the 10% most deprived areas; and 38 per cent of the 15% most deprived areas are found in Glasgow City
  • One in ten of the 15% most deprived areas are found in North Lanarkshire.
  • Over 50 per cent of the data zones in Glasgow City are defined to be in the 15% most deprived areas nationally; the comparable statistics for other local authorities with relatively high concentrations are Inverclyde (33 per cent); Dundee (28 per cent), West Dunbartonshire (27 per cent), and North Lanarkshire (25 per cent).
  • East Lothian, Eilean Siar, Moray, Orkney Islands and Shetland Islands have no areas in the 15% most deprived areas across Scotland.
  • Because the data in the income domain of the SIMD measures absolute levels of things like benefits and tax credits, it can be used as a proxy for levels of individual deprivation, and 38 per cent of all income deprived people live in the 15% most deprived areas.
  • There are higher levels of individual deprivation in urban areas. In large urban areas, as defined by the Scottish Executive's Urban Rural Classification, 18.5 per cent of individuals are income deprived, compared with just under 10 per cent in rural areas. There is also a west of Scotland effect in large urban area statistics, and an Eilean Siar effect in remote and rural areas. Relatively higher proportions of data zones in the 10% most deprived areas in the west of Scotland should be considered when interpreting large urban area statistics.
  • There is a relationship between concentrations of deprivation and levels of individual deprivation at the local authority level. However, because of the relatively small populations in some local authorities, and Glasgow City's large overall share of concentrations of deprivation, care needs to be taken in deciding how concentrations of deprivation and/or levels of individual deprivation are used to inform particular policies.
Background to the SIMD 2004

The Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation ( SIMD) 2004 is the Scottish Executive's official measure for identifying small area concentrations of multiple deprivation across all of Scotland. The SIMD is relevant to polices and funding wholly or partly aimed at tackling or taking account of the causes and effects of concentrations of multiple deprivation.

The Scottish Executive contracted the Scottish Centre for Research on Social Justice ( SCRSJ), Universities of Glasgow and Aberdeen to develop its strategy for measuring deprivation. The SCRSJ carried out extensive research and consulted widely with stakeholders throughout Scotland in developing the strategy. The strategy (Measuring Deprivation in Scotland: Developing a Long-Term Strategy) sets out how the Scottish Executive intends to measure area and individual multiple deprivation. SCRSJ provided a clear definition and conceptual basis for measuring deprivation, clarifying how the terms relate to others used to refer to social need such as poverty, social exclusion or social injustice. They also set out the long-term strategy for measuring area deprivation building on the widely accepted methodology developed by Oxford University (see Scottish Indices of Deprivation 2003). The long-term strategy for measuring deprivation put in place a timetable for the development and publication of future indices of deprivation. In doing so it allows the methodology to be refined and new data sources to be developed. The SIMD 2004 represents the first step in this process and provides a relative ranking of small areas across Scotland allowing the most deprived areas to be identified.

The Index is based on the small area statistical geography of data zones which contain on average 750 people. There are 6,505 data zones covering the whole of Scotland which nest within local authority boundaries. They are built from groups of Census output areas and designed to have populations of between 500 and 1,000 household residents. It was not always possible for data zones to meet everyone's understanding of their local communities, but one of the main benefits of data zones is their small size which allows groups of data zones to be grouped together to approximate local communities.

Before the introduction of data zones, different parts of the public sector were using different geographies such as wards and postcode sectors. Data zones now allow local partners to exchange information more easily and gain a common understanding of local issues and the areas they affect. They are also making it easier to bring together and analyse a range of information about small areas for the whole of Scotland.

Central government administrative systems confidentially store a wealth of information that can be anonymised and aggregated and then used to help develop national and local policy and service delivery. The SIMD makes extensive use of information from administrative systems. Unlike previous small area work on deprivation, the characteristics of the people and households living in each area ( e.g. lone parents, disabled or elderly) are not factors used within the SIMD. Instead, it uses people's and household's circumstances ( e.g. dependance on benefits, educational attainment and premature mortality). The overall SIMD 2004 is created from 31 different indicators which cover specific aspects of deprivation: Current Income, Employment, Health, Education, Housing and Access. These indicators are combined using the widely accepted methodology developed by Oxford University in their calculation of the Scottish Indices of Deprivation 2003. The methodology produces a ranking of the data zones from 1 (most deprived) to 6,505 (least deprived) on the overall measure and also on each of the individual domains. The SIMD indicators are set out in Appendix 1.

The SIMD has been recognised by stakeholders as a significant improvement on previous area deprivation measures. The introduction of the new data zone geography allows the SIMD to pick out small pockets of deprivation previously missed by indices based on larger ward and postcode sectors (which also vary significantly in population size). Data zones are a statistical geography and are not subject to the same degree of change as wards and postcode sectors and so allow change over time to be monitored more easily, they are also more homogeneous than wards and postcode sectors. Further information is published in the Scottish Neighbourhood Statistics Data Zones Background Information report. Previous measures based on census data and geographies were able to pick out small pockets of deprivation, but were limited to the topics covered in the census and could not be updated between censuses because of the reliability of administrative data at the census output area level. The use of administrative data allows for the SIMD to be updated with new data on an ongoing basis - the SIMD is scheduled to be updated in 2006.

The SIMD is applicable to the whole of Scotland and makes use of the most up to date and accurate information available. The SIMD uses indicators chosen for their relevance to the whole of Scotland. Some indicators used in previous measure of deprivation have been biased against certain areas, in particular, car ownership is not included as an indicator in the SIMD because of concerns that whilst it might be a proxy for affluence in urban areas, the same is not true of rural areas. The majority of the SIMD data represents 2002 and this should be taken in to account when reviewing the results. Enhancements incorporated in to SIMD 2004 have been discussed extensively in earlier publications and references are provided at the end of this chapter.

Scottish Neighbourhood Statistics is the Scottish Executive's on-going programme to improve the availability, consistency and accessibility of small area statistics in Scotland. Information from SNS is being used to inform the Scottish Executive, Community Planning Partnerships, and other public sector agencies' approach to delivering services and improving the quality of life for people living in Scotland. Increasingly, understanding the different needs of different areas is crucial to the way in which services are developed and delivered. The information contained within SNS is also readily available to community groups and voluntary organisations. The introduction of new consistent small area statistical geographies (which are being used across government) and the development of statistics about these local areas is making it easier to support and monitor national and local policy over time.

Scottish Neighbourhood Statistics and the SIMD 2004 provide a consistent statistical and geographical basis to support delivery and monitoring of the range of Partnership Agreement and Closing the Opportunity Gap commitments and targets with a small area emphasis. In terms of areas of multiple deprivation, there is a specific Ct OG target as follows: To promote community regeneration of the most deprived neighbourhoods, through improvements by 2008 in employability, education, health, access to local services, and quality of the local environment.

SIMD 2004 distribution

The SIMD 2004 is designed to identify the most deprived areas in Scotland and is not a measure of affluence. However, the SIMD can be used as a measure of deprivation across all area types. It should be noted that there are greater concentrations of deprivation at the most deprived end of the distribution. The highest concentrations of deprivation are found in those areas at the most deprived 0-2, 2-5, 5-10, and 10-15% of the distribution.

The 'L-shaped' distribution shown here for income deprivation occurs repeatedly in relation to the indicators used throughout this publication and this is one of the main findings of the analysis. Chart 1.1 shows the proportion of individuals dependent on income benefits and tax credits within each quintile (Scotland divided in to 20% portions), decile (Scotland divided in to 10% portions), vigintile (Scotland divided in to 5% portions) and percentile (Scotland divided in to 1% portions). As already discussed, a finer resolution of the SIMD rankings ( e.g. 'percentiles') reveals a steeper gradient and higher proportions of deprived individuals than a coarser resolution of ( e.g. 'quintiles'). There is a greater difference in deprivation between the groups of data zones in the most deprived 1-5% of areas, and 5-10% of areas compared to say the difference between the most deprived 50% and 60% of areas.

Chart 1.1: Income deprivation by SIMD 2004 quintile, decile, vigintile and percentile

Chart 1.1: Income deprivation by SIMD 2004 quintile, decile, vigintile and percentile image

Source: Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation 2004

The SIMD 2004 is a relative measure of deprivation and therefore the SIMD rankings and scores cannot be used to determine 'how much' more deprived one data zone is compared to another, but it is possible to say that one data zone is more deprived than another. It is possible to monitor absolute improvements in areas (defined in terms of aggregations of data zones) over time on a wide range of socio-economic indicators which are available through Scottish Neighbourhood Statistics. Although, it should be remembered that uncertainty around small area statistics means that it is difficult to draw conclusions at the individual data zone level.

Concentrations of deprivation across local authorities

There are different ways of summarising concentrations of deprivation at the local authority level. The index can be used to compare the scale and level of concentrations of deprivation within and across larger areas. This is achieved by considering the national and local share of the most deprived 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% of data zones across Scotland. Table 1.2 provides this information by local authority.

Looking at the 5% most deprived areas (the areas with the very highest concentrations of deprivation), 70 per cent of data zones are found in Glasgow City (national share). Almost one third of Glasgow City data zones are amongst the most deprived 5% of data zones (local share). Of the 32 local authorities, 13 have no data zones in the 5% most deprived areas.

Looking at the 15% most deprived areas, Glasgow City has by far the greatest share of areas with over a third. It is also the local authority with the greatest percentage of its own data zones (over half) contained in the 15% most deprived areas. The majority of the small areas with the highest concentrations of deprivation can be found in the west coast with almost 70 per cent of the 15% most deprived areas in Glasgow City, Inverclyde, North Lanarkshire, Renfrewshire, South Lanarkshire and West Dunbartonshire.

As the threshold is increased, more local authorities are identified as containing deprived areas. For example East Lothian contains three data zones which are deprived at the 20% threshold - while it had none at the lower thresholds. This analysis stresses the importance of choosing a threshold which is informed by the focus of the policy i.e. whether it is intended to target areas with the very highest concentrations of deprivation. Analysing the change in national share as the threshold increases from 5% to 10%, 10% to 15%, and 15% to 20% of data zones shows that Glasgow City's share has the largest proportional reductions, but other local authorities also see a reduction in their share at the various cut offs.

It is useful to consider both the national and local picture of deprivation. For example, one per cent of the most deprived 15% of data zones are in Clackmannanshire, however, around one in seven of the data zones in Clackmannanshire are amongst the 15% most deprived in Scotland.

When analysing the SIMD at local authority level it is appropriate to use the national distribution (which shows the local authorities share across each of the deciles) and to make use of the wide range of SNS socio-economic indicators to understand the absolute differences between areas and over time. Re-ranking data zones within local authorities can result in apparently large differences between ranks which are not necessarily translated in to large absolute differences.

Table 1.2: Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation 2004 by Local Authority
Numbers, percentages

Local Authority

Total number of data zones

Most Deprived 5% across Scotland

Most Deprived 10% across Scotland

Most Deprived 15% across Scotland

Most Deprived 20% across Scotland

Number of data zones

National Share (%)

Local Share (%)

Number of data zones

National Share (%)

Local Share (%)

Number of data zones

National Share (%)

Local Share (%)

Number of data zones

National Share (%)

Local Share (%)

Aberdeen City

267

2

0.62

0.75

8

1.23

3.00

18

1.84

6.74

28

2.15

10.49

Aberdeenshire

301

0

0

0

1

0.15

0.33

2

0.20

0.66

4

0.31

1.33

Angus

142

0

0

0

0

0

0

3

0.31

2.11

6

0.46

4.23

Argyll & Bute

122

0

0

0

6

0.92

4.92

9

0.92

7.38

10

0.77

8.20

Clackmannanshire

64

2

0.62

3.13

4

0.61

6.25

10

1.02

15.63

16

1.23

25.00

Dumfries & Galloway

193

1

0.31

0.52

3

0.46

1.55

9

0.92

4.66

15

1.15

7.77

Dundee City

179

9

2.77

5.03

34

5.22

18.99

51

5.23

28.49

75

5.76

41.9

East Ayrshire

154

7

2.15

4.55

13

2

8.44

28

2.87

18.18

40

3.07

25.97

East Dunbartonshire

127

0

0

0

2

0.31

1.57

4

0.41

3.15

5

0.38

3.94

East Lothian

120

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

3

0.23

2.50

East Renfrewshire

120

1

0.31

0.83

2

0.31

1.67

6

0.61

5

8

0.61

6.67

Edinburgh, City of

549

24

7.38

4.37

44

6.76

8.01

61

6.25

11.11

70

5.38

12.75

Eilean Siar

36

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Falkirk

197

1

0.31

0.51

7

1.08

3.55

14

1.43

7.11

29

2.23

14.72

Fife

453

1

0.31

0.22

12

1.84

2.65

33

3.38

7.28

60

4.61

13.25

Glasgow City

694

226

69.54

32.56

324

49.77

46.69

373

38.22

53.75

404

31.05

58.21

Highland

292

3

0.92

1.03

7

1.08

2.40

9

0.92

3.08

17

1.31

5.82

Inverclyde

110

6

1.85

5.45

24

3.69

21.82

36

3.69

32.73

46

3.54

41.82

Midlothian

112

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0.10

0.89

5

0.38

4.46

Moray

116

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

North Ayrshire

179

6

1.85

3.35

16

2.46

8.94

33

3.38

18.44

50

3.84

27.93

North Lanarkshire

418

10

3.08

2.39

44

6.76

10.53

103

10.55

24.64

153

11.76

36.60

Orkney Islands

27

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Perth & Kinross

175

0

0

0

2

0.31

1.14

3

0.31

1.71

5

0.38

2.86

Renfrewshire

214

8

2.46

3.74

22

3.38

10.28

41

4.20

19.16

60

4.61

28.04

Scottish Borders

130

0

0

0

1

0.15

0.77

2

0.20

1.54

4

0.31

3.08

Shetland Islands

30

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

South Ayrshire

147

1

0.31

0.68

8

1.23

5.44

13

1.33

8.84

20

1.54

13.61

South Lanarkshire

398

8

2.46

2.01

40

6.14

10.05

66

6.76

16.58

88

6.76

22.11

Stirling

110

3

0.92

2.73

5

0.77

4.55

6

0.61

5.45

8

0.61

7.27

West Dunbartonshire

118

6

1.85

5.08

20

3.07

16.95

32

3.28

27.12

44

3.38

37.29

West Lothian

211

0

0

0

2

0.31

0.95

10

1.02

4.74

28

2.15

13.27

Scotland

6,505

325

100

-

651

100

-

976

100

-

1,301

100

-

Source: Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation 2004
Note: The national share is the percentage of all 6,505 data zones that are in the 5, 10, 15 or 20% most deprived nationally. The local share is the percentage of all the data zones in the local authority that are in the 5, 10, 15 or 20% most deprived nationally.

Individual deprivation across local authorities

The SIMD measures concentrations of multiple deprivation at the data zone level. It also includes an income domain that covers individuals in receipt of low income benefits and/or tax credits. This can be a useful proxy for the level of individual deprivation across Scotland. Table 1.3 provides information on the number and percentage of income deprived people living within each local authority.

The SIMD identifies the most deprived data zones, but not all deprived people live in these data zones and conversely not everyone living in these data zones is deprived. This is best illustrated by the distribution of the current income domain scores. These represent the direct percentage of the total population who are income deprived. This allows some insight into the extent to which deprived people live in the most deprived data zones.

In Scotland, just over 750,000 people are defined as income deprived using SIMD. Some 290,000 income deprived people live in the 15% most deprived areas, which is 38 per cent of Scotland's income deprived population. The proportion varies across local authorities. For example, 78 per cent of the income deprived people living in Glasgow live in the most deprived 15% of data zones nationally, while 38 per cent of the income deprived people living in Edinburgh live in the most deprived 15% of data zones nationally. Within 17 (of 32) local authorities the 15% most deprived data zones nationally include at least 15 per cent of the income deprived people living in that local authority. None of the income deprived people living in East Lothian, Eilean Siar, Moray, Orkney Islands and Shetland Islands live in the most deprived 15% of data zones nationally.

There is a relationship between concentrations of deprivation and levels of individual deprivation at the local authority level. However, because of the small populations in some local authorities, and Glasgow City's large overall share of concentrations of deprivation, care needs to be taken in deciding how concentrations of deprivation and/or levels of individual deprivation are used to inform particular policies. For example, Glasgow City contains 38 per cent of the most deprived 15% of data zones, but 21 per cent of the income deprived people in Scotland. Conversely, East Lothian, Eilean Siar, Moray, Orkney Islands, and Shetland Islands have no areas within the 15% most deprived data zones, but contain 1.3, 0.5, 1.1, 0.2 and 0.2 per cent of the income deprived people living in Scotland, respectively. East Lothian contains no data zones in the most deprived 15% of data zones, but 11 per cent of its population are considered to be income deprived.

The SIMD also contains employment and housing domains for which similar analysis can be carried out. The other domains within SIMD bring together indicators on different scales and so this type of analysis on the overall domains is not appropriate, but analysis at the individual indicator within the domains is.

Table 1.3: Number and percentage of income deprived people, by Local Authority
Numbers, percentages

Local Authority

Total number of income deprived

National share of income deprived

Percentage of total Local Authority population that are income deprived

Most Deprived 5% of Data Zones

Most Deprived 10% of Data Zones

Most Deprived 15% of Data Zones

Most Deprived 20% of Data Zones

Number of income deprived

Percentage of total Local Authority income deprived population

Number of income deprived

Percentage of total Local Authority income deprived population

Number of income deprived

Percentage of total Local Authority income deprived population

Number of income deprived

Percentage of total Local Authority income deprived population

Aberdeen City

23,139

3.1

10.9

927

4.0

2,591

11.2

4,531

19.6

6,549

28.3

Aberdeenshire

16,779

2.2

7.4

0

0

309

1.8

515

3.1

965

5.8

Angus

12,734

1.7

11.7

0

0

0

0

881

6.9

1,621

12.7

Argyll & Bute

10,315

1.4

11.3

0

0

1,369

13.3

2,019

19.6

2,184

21.2

Clackmannanshire

7,609

1.0

15.8

805

10.6

1,262

16.6

2,500

32.9

3,754

49.3

Dumfries & Galloway

18,543

2.4

12.5

421

2.3

1,177

6.3

2,480

13.4

3,782

20.4

Dundee City

28,741

3.8

19.7

3,386

11.8

11,047

38.4

14,959

52.0

19,907

69.3

East Ayrshire

21,642

2.9

18.0

2,708

12.5

4,567

21.1

8,258

38.2

10,413

48.1

East Dunbartonshire

8,412

1.1

7.8

0

0

657

7.8

1,106

13.1

1,271

15.1

East Lothian

9,545

1.3

10.6

0

0

0

0

0

0

667

7.0

East Renfrewshire

6,965

0.9

7.8

316

4.5

545

7.8

1,415

20.3

1,869

26.8

Edinburgh, City of

52,821

7.0

11.8

9,256

17.5

15,720

29.8

20,106

38.1

22,044

41.7

Eilean Siar

4,031

0.5

15.2

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Falkirk

20,163

2.7

13.9

218

1.1

1,561

7.7

2,978

14.8

5,730

28.4

Fife

45,738

6.0

13.1

320

0.7

3,140

6.9

8,277

18.1

14,008

30.6

Glasgow City

160,474

21.2

27.8

86,889

54.1

114,341

71.3

125,337

78.1

131,175

81.7

Highland

25,424

3.4

12.2

983

3.9

2,101

8.3

2,567

10.1

4,237

16.7

Inverclyde

15,802

2.1

18.8

1,820

11.5

6,507

41.2

9,182

58.1

10,847

68.6

Midlothian

9,024

1.2

11.1

0

0

0

0

269

3.0

1,077

11.9

Moray

8,278

1.1

9.5

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

North Ayrshire

25,334

3.3

18.7

2,234

8.8

4,982

19.7

9,145

36.1

12,830

50.6

North Lanarkshire

59,459

7.9

18.5

3,517

5.9

12,855

21.6

26,144

44.0

35,019

58.9

Orkney Islands

1,548

0.2

8.0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Perth & Kinross

12,432

1.6

9.2

0

0

606

4.9

833

6.7

1,237

10.0

Renfrewshire

27,258

3.6

15.8

3,201

11.7

7,082

26.0

11,678

42.8

15,692

57.6

Scottish Borders

10,482

1.4

9.8

0

0

337

3.2

593

5.7

959

9.1

Shetland Islands

1,495

0.2

6.8

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

South Ayrshire

15,260

2.0

13.6

416

2.7

2,458

16.1

3,345

21.9

4,749

31.1

South Lanarkshire

46,878

6.2

15.5

2,550

5.4

11,649

24.8

17,448

37.2

21,527

45.9

Stirling

9,177

1.2

10.6

1,032

11.2

1,650

18.0

1,856

20.2

2,313

25.2

West Dunbartonshire

19,812

2.6

21.2

1,968

9.9

6,532

33.0

9,354

47.2

11,540

58.2

West Lothian

21,903

2.9

13.8

0

0

558

2.5

2,338

10.7

5,956

27.2

Scotland

757,212

100

15.0

122,967

16.2

215,603

28.5

290,114

38.3

353,924

46.7

Source: Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation 2004
Note: Figures for each LA have been rounded to the nearest whole. Therefore the sum of the LA figures may not necessarily equate to the Scotland figure.

Chart 1.4 provides an analysis of how data zones are spread across the SIMD deciles in each of the 32 local authorities. It should be recognised that the SIMD is not a measure of affluence and the least deprived areas are those areas that contain the lowest levels of deprivation across the range of indicators included in SIMD. For each local authority, the charts show the percentage of areas in the 10% most deprived areas nationally, 10-20% most deprived areas nationally, etc.

Some groups of local authorities have similar distributions. For example, Aberdeen City and City of Edinburgh have high percentages of areas in the least deprived areas, but also have relatively high levels in the most deprived (especially Edinburgh). Other local authorities, including Aberdeenshire, Perth and Kinross, Scottish Borders, Shetland Islands and Orkney Islands tend to have the majority of their areas in the least deprived half of the distribution. Others including East Ayrshire and Eilean Siar tend to have the majority of their areas in the most deprived half of the distribution. Whereas, other local authorities including Dundee City, Glasgow City, Inverclyde, North Ayrshire, North Lanarkshire and West Dunbartonshire tend to have the majority of their areas in the 30% most deprived nationally, and in Glasgow City's case in the 10% most deprived areas nationally.

Chart 1.4: Distribution of data zones across the SIMD 2004 deciles by local authority
Percentage

Chart 1.4: Distribution of data zones across the SIMD 2004 deciles by local authority image

Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation 2004

Chart 1.4: Distribution of data zones across the SIMD 2004 deciles by local authority(continued)
Percentage

Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation 2004

Geographic Information Systems

There are just over 6,500 data zones in Scotland. It was not practicable for the Scottish Executive to name all these areas (although some local authorities have now named data zones). Given the lack of names and the number of data zones there is an increasing emphasis on the use of geographic analysis and Scottish Neighbourhood Statistics has developed systems to allow users to readily carry out this type of analysis.

The new geographic and socio-economic information is freely available through innovative and easy to use internet systems that allow users to flexibly define the areas of interest and select the statistics for these areas.

The SIMD Interactive website includes maps of the data zones for each local authority by their rank on the SIMD 2004 and each of the individual domains are also available. The maps show the national and local pictures of deprivation in an area (See Figure 1.5).

SNS allows multiple areas and statistics about these areas to be selected and analysed in a tabular and geographic format (See Figure 1.6).

In addition to the information on the SNS and SIMD internet sites, a data CD is also available which contains a copy of all the statistics on the SNS site. This is also supplemented with a geographic information CD which allows users to link their local information to the data zone geography.

Maps showing data zones in the 15% most deprived areas across Scotland have been produced using SNS geography and data download CDs (See Figure 1.7).

Figure 1.5: Screen shot from the SIMD 2004 Interactive website

Interactive map of Glasgow City identifying those areas within the most deprived 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% of data zones in Scotland. Over half of Glasgow's population live within the most deprived 15% of areas in Scotland.

Figure 1.5: Screen shot from the SIMD 2004 Interactive website image

Figure 1.6: Screen shot from the Scottish Neighbourhood Statistics website

Figure 1.6: Screen shot from the Scottish Neighbourhood Statistics website image

Figure 1.7: Maps showing data zones in the 15% most deprived areas across Scotland
Glasgow and the Clyde Valley, Clackmannanshire, Falkirk and West Lothian

Figure 1.7: Maps showing data zones in the 15% most deprived areas across Scotland image

Note: some local authorities are represented on more than one map.

Dundee City and Angus

Dundee City and Angus image

Argyll & Bute, Inverclyde, Renfrewshire and West Dunbartonshire

Dundee City and Angus image

City of Edinburgh, the Lothians, Fife and Perth & Kinross

City of Edinburgh, the Lothians, Fife and Perth & Kinross image

North, South and East Ayrshire

North, South and East Ayrshire image

Aberdeen City

Aberdeen City image

Highland, Aberdeenshire and Angus

Highland, Aberdeenshire and Angus image

Perth & Kinross, Argyll & Bute, South and East Ayrshire and South Lanarkshire

Perth & Kinross, Argyll & Bute, South and East Ayrshire and South Lanarkshire image

South Ayrshire, Dumfries & Galloway and Scottish Borders

South Ayrshire, Dumfries & Galloway and Scottish Borders image

Deprivation Domains

The SIMD 2004 is constructed from a combination of six domains, which are assigned weightings to create the final index. The domain ranks are combined using the ratios 6:6:3:3:2:1 in the following order:

1. Current Income
2. Employment
3. Health
4. Education, Skills and Training
5. Geographic Access and Telecommunications
6. Housing

Further information on the weightings and the methodology can be found in the SIMD 2004 Summary Technical Report, Scottish Indices of Deprivation 2003, and Measuring Deprivation in Scotland: Developing a Long-Term Strategy.

The weighting assigned to a particular domain will influence how strongly it relates to the overall SIMD index. The administrative data used in SIMD is not linked across domains and so the correlations are measured at the data zone level. It is possible to analyse the relationship between these domains at the data zone level by considering their correlation.

Two domains are positively correlated if, as ranks in one domain tend to increase, the other domain's ranks also tend to increase. If the domains are negatively correlated, one domain's ranks will tend to decrease as the other increases. Table 1.8 describes the correlations between the ranks of the six individual domains and the overall SIMD 2004 rank. This is based on Pearson's correlation coefficient which is a measure of the linearity of the relationship between variable (in this case, the ranks). The coefficient ranges between 1.00 (perfect positive correlation i.e. as ranks in one domain increase the ranks in the other increases in exactly the same way) and -1.00 (perfect negative correlation i.e. as ranks in one domain increases the other decreases by exactly the same amount). Generally a correlation of 0.8 or higher would be considered strongly positive.

Table 1.8: Correlations between the ranks in individual domains of the Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation 2004
Pearson correlation coefficients

Current Income

Employment

Health

Education

Housing

Access

SIMD 2004 overall

Current Income

1

Employment

0.93

1

Health

0.89

0.9

1

Education

0.86

0.84

0.82

1

Housing

0.73

0.68

0.73

0.7

1

Access

-0.33

-0.32

-0.4

-0.28

-0.39

1

SIMD 2004 overall

0.96

0.96

0.92

0.9

0.76

-0.22

1

Source: Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation 2004

The overall SIMD is highly correlated with the Current Income, Employment, Health and Education domains.

The Access domain is not correlated with all domains and the overall SIMD measure. Access deprivation tends to occur in rural and remote areas whilst the other deprivations are most concentrated in urban Scotland. The Access domain is included in the SIMD as it captures a set of problems such as financial cost, time and inconvenience that operate at an area level and are seen by many as a disadvantage in their own right.

Another way of analysing the correlations is to look at the numbers of data zones that are deprived in more than one domain. One third of those data zones in the 15% most deprived by the SIMD 2004 are in the 15% most deprived on at least five of the six individual domains (Chart 1.9). Future chapters will show that deprived data zones also tend to be amongst the most deprived on other indicators which are not included in the SIMD 2004.

Chart 1.9: Data zones in the 15% most deprived, that are also in the 15% most deprived in individual domains
Percentage

Chart 1.9: Data zones in the 15% most deprived, that are also in the 15% most deprived in individual domains image

Source: Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation 2004

Concentrations of deprivation in urban, rural and remote areas

The Scottish Executive Urban Rural Classification is based on the core definition that 'settlements' with a population of greater than 3,000 are urban. The full classification is described in Table 1.10 and can be further collapsed into the urban rural classification or the accessible remote classification. Every data zone has been assigned to this classification on a best-fit basis, making it possible to analyse the results of the SIMD 2004 over urban and rural areas.

Table 1.10: Scottish Executive Urban Rural Classification

Urban Areas

Large Urban Areas

Settlements of over 125,000 people.

Other Urban Areas

Settlements of 10,000 to 125,000 people.

Accessible Small Towns

Settlements of between 3,000 and 10,000 people and within 30 minutes drive of a settlement of 10,000 or more.

Remote Small Towns

Settlements of between 3,000 and 10,000 people and with a drive time of over 30 minutes to a settlement of 10,000 or more.

Rural Areas

Accessible Rural

Settlements of less than 3,000 people and within 30 minutes drive of a settlement of 10,000 or more.

Remote Rural

Settlements of less than 3,000 people and with a drive time of over 30 minutes to a settlement of 10,000 or more.

Of the 6,505 data zones in Scotland, 20 per cent (1,326) are defined as rural, however, 25 (two per cent) of these are within the most deprived 15% of data zones across Scotland. Looking at the income domain as a proxy for individual deprivation, it can be seen that around 10 per cent of people living in rural areas are defined as income deprived. Some 27 per cent of data zones in the large urban areas are within the most deprived 15% of data zones across Scotland, and 19 per cent of people living in large urban areas can be considered income deprived.

It is also clear that urban areas have higher levels of both individual and concentrated deprivation. The difference between the level of individual deprivation between urban and rural areas, however, is smaller than the difference in the levels of concentrations of multiple deprivation between urban and rural areas.

The 15% most deprived data zones nationally, identify around 40 per cent of the income deprived people. Among all large urban areas, 18.5 per cent of the total population are income deprived, compared with 9.2 per cent in accessible rural areas and 9.9 per cent in remote rural areas. In large urban areas that are in the 15% most deprived, 58 per cent of individuals are income deprived, compared with 8.9 per cent of people in accessible rural areas and 2.2 per cent of people in remote rural areas (Table 1.11).

Table 1.11: Income and Employment deprivation in urban and rural areas
Numbers, percentages

% of data zones in 15% most deprived nationally

Number of income deprived

Number of employment deprived

% of total population that are income deprived

% of working age population that are employment deprived

% of income deprived people living in 15% most deprived of data zones

% of employment deprived people living in 15% most deprivedof data zones

Large Urban

27.7

363,934

201,655

18.5

16.2

58.0

51.9

Other Urban

12.1

216,357

128,458

14.9

14.3

28.2

23.8

Accessible small towns

5.1

63,322

37,395

12.4

12.0

13.0

11.3

Remote small towns

7.9

19,593

10,261

13.9

12.5

17.4

16.0

Accessible rural

2.5

65,209

41,163

9.2

9.3

8.9

7.3

Remote rural

0.5

28,799

16,106

9.9

9.4

2.2

2.1

Scotland

15.0

757,212

435,037

15.0

13.8

38.3

33.2

Source: Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation 2004

As already discussed, in designing the SIMD methodology great care has been taken to ensure bias towards urban or rural areas is not introduced. The smaller data zone geography has been welcomed by rural stakeholders, as have the introduction of an access domain and the decision not to include indicators on car ownership. However, there is an argument that the use of income benefits as a proxy for low income bias rural areas because of differential take-up rates in rural areas. At present, there is no evidence to suggest that this is the case, and we are working with the Department of Work and Pensions to explore this further. In the 15% most deprived data zones, it is fairly common to find more than 40 per cent of the population on benefits, however, this is not the case in rural areas. With this in mind it is likely that any potential differential benefit take-up rates will not have a significant impact on the deprived areas identified by SIMD.

Chart 1.12 provides an analysis of how data zones are spread across the SIMD deciles in urban and rural areas. These show that large urban areas contain a high proportion of data zones in the most and least deprived deciles. Whilst 'other urban areas' are represented less in the most deprived 10%, they are more likely to be found in deciles two to five. Accessible small towns are fairly evenly represented in all of the deciles except for the most deprived. Conversely remote small towns and remote rural areas are generally found in the middle deciles with very few areas amongst the most deprived. Although, the analysis of the urban rural distributions should be viewed in parallel with the local authority distributions in chart 1.4 which show a west of Scotland effect in large urban areas, and also the Eilean Siar effect in the rural and remote areas.

Chart 1.12: Distribution of data zones across the SIMD 2004 deciles by the SE urban rural classification
Percentage of data zones in each decile

Source: Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation 2004

The third publication in the Social Focus series, Social Focus Urban Rural Scotland 2003 explored a wide range of urban and rural issues.

Spread of concentrations of deprivation across Scotland over time

It is difficult to make comparisons on the spread of concentrations of deprivation across Scotland over time because the deprivation indices used over the years have used different geographies and different indicators.

In the 1995 report Deprived Areas in Scotland, a census analysis based on enumeration districts (containing approximately 320 people) and similar, but not identical, census indicators in 1971, 1981 and 1991 showed that concentrations of deprivation were predominately found in large urban areas. The results identified Glasgow as consistently having particularly high levels of concentrations of deprivation, and that the concentrations of deprivation in Eilean Siar fell sharply between 1971 and 1981.

References

Scottish Neighbourhood Statistics www.sns.gov.uk

SNS Data download CD - available from the Office of the Chief Statistician

SNS Geography CD - available from the Office of the Chief Statistician

Scottish Neighbourhood Statistics Data Zones Background Information Reporthttp://www.scotland.gov.uk/library5/society/sndata-05.asp

Scottish Executive Urban Rural Classificationhttp://www.scotland.gov.uk/library5/rural/seurc-00.asp

Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation 2004
1. Summary Technical Reportwww.scotland.gov.uk/SIMD2004Report
2. Interactive websitewww.scotland.gov.uk/SIMD2004Mapping
3. Background datawww.scotland.gov.uk/SIMD2004Data

Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation 2004: Guidance Leaflethttp://www.scotland.gov.uk/library5/government/glsimd-00.asp

Scottish Indices of Deprivation 2003, Social Disadvantage Research Centre, University of Oxford http://www.scotland.gov.uk/library5/social/siod-00.asp

Measuring Deprivation in Scotland: Developing a Long-Term Strategy, Scottish Centre for Research on Social Justice http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/Statistics/17814/10179

Deprived Areas in Scotland: Results of an analysis of the 1991 Census (1995). The Scottish Office Central Research Unit.

Social Focus on Urban Rural Scotland 2003http://www.scotland.gov.uk/stats/bulletins/00257-00.asp

Contacts

Chapter Author
Robert Williams
Office of the Chief Statistician
Scottish Executive
0131 244 0442
neighbourhood.statistics@scotland.gsi.gov.uk