SCOTTISH TRANSPORT STATISTICS No 24: 2005 Edition

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RECENT RESEARCH REPORTS

Research published since the previous edition of Scottish Transport Statistics are listed below. They are available from the Scottish Executive Social Research website http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/Research/Research/17692/SocialResearchPubs/TransportAndPlanning

Integrated Ticketing in Scotland - Needs Analysis and Options ( DD Research Findings 2004 No 195)
The Scottish Executive commissioned TNS Social Research, TRL and TRi at Napier University to conduct research to inform the development of integrated ticketing in Scotland. The methods adopted were wide-ranging, including a literature review, a telephone survey of stakeholders, case studies of existing integrated ticketing schemes, a review of legal and policy barriers to establishing new schemes, a Household Survey of Scottish adults to explore their views on different types of tickets, and statistical modelling to predict the potential take-up for integrated ticketing in different areas of Scotland. The research provided an overview of the level of need and demand for future integrated ticketing schemes in Scotland and advice to inform the development of successful schemes.

Review of the Rural Petrol Stations Grant Scheme ( DD Research Findings 2004 No 186)
The Scottish Executive commissioned Steer Davies Gleave to review the Rural Petrol Stations Grant Scheme that has been in place since 1998 with the objective "to support the retention of a sustainable and accessible network of fuel supply in rural Scotland". The study evaluated the funding mechanism of the grant and evaluated the benefits that arise from it. Options for future changes to the scheme were identified and appraised, and from these, recommendations made which were used to introduce an expansion of the scheme from October 2004.

Anti-social Behaviour on Buses ( DD Research Findings 2005 No 196)
The Scottish Executive commissioned George Street Research to investigate the extent and impact of anti-social behaviour on Scottish buses. The research comprised a literature review, a household survey, qualitative and quantitative surveys among bus company staff and bus drivers and qualitative discussions among key stakeholders. ASB on buses has been experienced by 70% of bus users and is perceived to be increasing in terms of both its frequency and seriousness. Rudeness, drunken behaviour, dumping litter and smoking cigarettes were most frequently experienced by passengers. ASB was experienced most frequently by bus drivers between 9pm and 12pm. There was a higher incidence of ASB on buses in socially deprived urban areas. ASB on buses could be reduced through improved reporting of ASB, improved training for bus drivers, increased partnership working and the use of educational, physical and preventative strategies.

Motorcycle Accidents and Casualties in Scotland 1992 -2002 ( DD Research Findings 2004 No 194)
The Scottish Executive and the Scottish Road Safety Campaign commissioned TRL Ltd. to undertake research into motorcycle accidents in Scotland. The research provided a quantitative and qualitative analysis of motorcycle accidents between 1992 and 2002 in order to highlight trends and identify measures that could be taken to reduce the number and severity of motorcycle accidents in Scotland. The research showed that although the number of motorcycle accidents is increasing, the casualty rate per million kilometres and per 1,000 licensed bikes is not increasing. Motorcycle accidents occurring on non-built up roads are more likely to be the fault of the biker whereas motorcycle accidents occurring in built up areas tend to be the fault of the motorist.

Parental Attitudes to Road Safety Education ( DD Research Findings 2004 No 190)
In August 2003 the Scottish Executive commissioned ODS Ltd. and Market Research UK to carry out research into parental attitudes to road safety education ( RSE) in Scotland. The impetus for this research arose out of previous studies that have demonstrated the central role that parents play in the road safety education of their children. Research has also found that the ability of parents to develop road safety education varies widely and depends on a range of factors and influences. The research found that parents perceive themselves as having the main responsibility to develop road safety awareness and skills in their children. Most parents modify there behaviour when accompanied by their children to act as role models and there is a need to establish better linkages between schools and parents in relation to road safety education.

Evaluation of the 2003/ 2004 Festive Drink Drive Campaign ( DD Research Findings 2003 No 191)
The Scottish Executive and the Scottish Road Safety Campaign commissioned mruk to evaluate the 2003 drink drive festive campaign and the broader 'Don't risk it' drink drive campaign. The research comprised a survey of 1,000 households and a series of focus groups and in-depth interviews. Fieldwork was carried out between February and April 2004. The research showed that the concept of the 'risk' and possible consequences of drinking and driving was perceived to be an appropriate and relevant sentiment. However there are two significant challenges for future campaign development. Firstly, there is a widespread lack of acceptance of current thresholds and the amount of alcohol which will impact upon an individuals ability to drive competently. Secondly there were clear indications that many respondents consider it unlikely that they will be caught if they drink and drive. This stems from a lack of visible evidence of enforcement.

Road Safety - By Accident or Design? ( SRSC 2004)
The Scottish Executive, Scottish Road Safety Campaign and Communities Scotland commissioned research to produce guidance on developing an inter-agency approach to road safety in regeneration areas. The research comprised a desk top review of road safety activity in Scotland's regeneration areas, a review of case studies in Europe and four detailed case studies of specific road safety initiatives within Scotland.

Research carried out for the Scottish Executive has highlighted the higher incidence rate of child road accidents in deprived or disadvantaged areas of Scotland. Across Scotland agencies and communities are working together to regenerate disadvantaged areas, tackling issues such as unemployment, social exclusion, community cohesiveness and community safety. It is not always realised how the improvement of road safety can make an immense contribution to tackling these issues, in addition to reducing the occurrence of road accidents. Where this has been realised research has shown that activities to improve road safety are most successful when an inter-agency approach is adopted.

Rural Road Safety: A Literature Review ( DD Research Findings 2005 No 203)
The Scottish Executive and the Scottish Road Safety Campaign commissioned TRL Limited to undertake a review of published literature covering road safety on rural roads. The resulting review focussed on UK research but also highlighted some interesting international research. Key findings from the literature review show that young drivers and motorcyclists are disproportionately involved in accidents on Scottish rural roads. Driver behaviour factors such as speed and speeding; alcohol and drug use; driver fatigue and sleepiness; and driver distraction are a key issue in rural road accidents. Other factors identified as contributing to rural road accidents are: wild animals (especially deer); darkness; and tourist activity. Emergency service response times in remote areas can affect the outcome of serious accidents. Education and publicity campaigns rarely focus on rural road safety. Driver training tends to focus on basic control skills. There is evidence to suggest that attitude rather than skill is related to crash involvement.

Extent and Severity of Cycle Accident Casualties ( DD Research Findings 2003 No 204)
The Scottish Executive commissioned Carole Millar Research to investigate the extent and severity of cycling accidents both on- and off- road. Cyclists who reported to one of five Accident and Emergency Departments across Lothian and Borders Health Board were asked to complete a questionnaire relating to their accident. In total, completed forms were received from 806 casualties aged five or over who had been injured as a result of a pedal cycle accident between 1 st September 2003 and 31 st August 2004. This data was compared with the STATS 19 accident data collected by the police for the same area. The research showed that a large proportion of cycling accidents occur off road. Adults are more likely to wear cycling helmets that children and STATS 19 data under-reports on-road cycling accidents and fails to report off-road cycling accidents.

Improving Road Safety Education for Children with Additional Support Needs ( DD Research Findings 2003 No 205)
The Scottish Executive and the Scottish Road Safety Campaign commissioned ODS to investigate the travel patterns and road safety requirements of children with Additional Support Needs. The study focused predominantly on the needs of children with mild to moderate learning difficulties, including autistic spectrum disorders and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Key findings show that the travel patterns of children with learning difficulties are often more restricted than those without. Children with mild to moderate learning difficulties are more likely to display behaviours which make road use more dangerous. Schools generally adapt mainstream resources to suit individual learning needs, and stressed the need for assistance in adapting resources. Parents tended to focus on practical roadside education, identified the need for appropriate resources for use with their children and desired better linkages with schools.

Bus Passenger Satisfaction 2004 ( DD Research Findings 2005 No 201)
Colin Buchanan were commissioned by the Scottish Executive to carry out a series of telephone interview surveys aimed at assessing bus passenger satisfaction with local bus services throughout Scotland. The surveys, which are carried out on an annual basis, seek to monitor changes in satisfaction which are to be used to inform decision making and policy development. This research finding reports results from the November 2004 survey and compares them with the previous surveys undertaken in November 2002 and 2003.

Public Perceptions of Travel Awareness - Phase 3 ( DD Research Findings 2005 No 202)
In Spring 2001, the Scottish Executive commissioned a national baseline survey of public awareness of travel initiatives and issues in Scotland. A follow up survey was also carried out in Winter 2002/3 (Phase 2) with Phase 3 in Autumn 2004. This report details the findings from Phase 3 and provides comparisons with the previous surveys where notable. The research was conducted by TNS Social Research, in collaboration with Professor Steve Stradling of Napier University and Dr Jillian Anable of the Centre for Transport Policy at the Robert Gordon University.