Rural Road Safety: A Literature Review

DescriptionA literature review to collate information relating to road accidents on rural roads, suggest how it may be applied to Scotland and provide recommendations for action.
ISBN0755925823
Official Print Publication Date
Website Publication DateAugust 09, 2005

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Kevin Hamilton and Janet Kennedy
TRL Limited
ISBN 0 7559 2582 3 (Web only publication)

This document is also available in pdf format (564k)

CONTENTS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
AIMS
ACCIDENTS ON SCOTTISH RURAL ROADS
RURAL ROAD ACCIDENT FACTORS
INTERVENTIONS FOR RURAL ROADS
RECOMMENDATIONS
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
BACKGROUND
SEARCH STRATEGY
DEFINITION OF RURAL ROADS
OUTLINE OF REPORT STRUCTURE
CHAPTER TWO: ACCIDENTS ON SCOTTISH RURAL ROADS
SIZE AND NATURE OF PROBLEM
ROAD TYPE
MODE OF TRANSPORT
CHAPTER THREE: RURAL ROAD ACCIDENT FACTORS
INTRODUCTION
DRIVER BEHAVIOUR FACTORS
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SPEED AND ACCIDENTS
SPEEDING, EXCESSIVE AND INAPPROPRIATE SPEED
ALCOHOL AND DRUGS
FATIGUE AND SLEEP-RELATED CRASHES
DISTRACTION AND INATTENTION
SEAT BELT USE
ROAD ENVIRONMENT FACTORS
GENERAL
DUAL AND SINGLE CARRIAGEWAY A ROADS
RURAL SINGLE CARRIAGEWAY ROADS
EURORAP
ROAD WIDTH
HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL ALIGNMENT
ROADSIDE CHARACTERISTICS
JUNCTIONS AND ACCESSES
WEATHER/CLIMATE AND SEASONALITY
LIGHT CONDITIONS
WILD ANIMALS
VULNERABLE ROAD USERS
YOUNG DRIVERS/PASSENGERS
MOTORCYCLISTS
CHILDREN
CYCLISTS
TOURIST/VISITOR ACCIDENTS
EMERGENCY MEDICAL SERVICE RESPONSE
AGRICULTURAL VEHICLES
CHAPTER FOUR: INTERVENTIONS FOR RURAL ROADS
EDUCATION, TRAINING AND PUBLICITY CAMPAIGNS
BACKGROUND
EDUCATION
PUBLICITY CAMPAIGNS
DRIVER TRAINING/ LICENSING
FLEET DRIVER TRAINING
ENGINEERING MEASURES
RURAL SPEED MANAGEMENT
VEHICLE-ACTIVATED SIGNS
COUNTDOWN SIGNS
ROAD MARKINGS AND SURFACING MEASURES
RUMBLE DEVICES
JUNCTION SPECIFIC MEASURES
BEND SPECIFIC MEASURES
SHARED SPACE AND QUIET LANES
VILLAGES
SELF-EXPLAINING ROADS
PSYCHOLOGICAL TRAFFIC CALMING
LAY-BYS AND PASSING PLACES
SAFETY BARRIERS
2+1 LAYOUTS
ENFORCEMENT
SPEED CAMERAS
CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
SUMMARY OF ISSUES
RURAL DEFINITION
DRIVER BEHAVIOUR ISSUES
ROAD ENVIRONMENT ISSUES
OTHER FACTORS
GAPS IN LITERATURE / FURTHER RESEARCH REQUIRED
QUANTIFICATION OF RURAL ROAD PROBLEM IN SCOTLAND
LACK OF KNOWLEDGE OF SLEEP-RELATED CRASHES IN SCOTLAND
BENEFITS OF EDUCATION/PUBLICITY MEASURES TARGETED AT RURAL SITUATION
EMERGENCY SERVICE RESPONSE SPECIFIC TO SCOTLAND.
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR ACTION
SHORT TERM
MEDIUM AND LONG TERM
REFERENCES

The views expressed in this report are those of the researcher and
do not necessarily represent those of the Department or Scottish Ministers.

This report is available on the Scottish Executive Social Research website only
www.scotland.gov.uk/socialresearch.