Analysis of Ethnicity in the 2001 Census - Summary Report

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Analysis of Ethnicity in the 2001 Census - Summary Report

1. DEMOGRAPHICS

Scottish Population

Table 1.1: Scottish population by ethnic group - All People
Percentages

% of total
Population

%
minority ethnic population

Base

White Scottish

88.09

na

4,459,071

Other White British

7.38

na

373,685

White Irish

0.98

na

49,428

Any other White background

1.54

na

78,150

Indian

0.30

14.79

15,037

Pakistani

0.63

31.27

31,793

Bangladeshi

0.04

1.95

1,981

Chinese

0.32

16.04

16,310

Other South Asian

0.12

6.09

6,196

Caribbean

0.04

1.75

1,778

African

0.10

5.03

5,118

Black Scottish or any other Black background

0.02

1.11

1,129

Any Mixed Background

0.25

12.55

12,764

Any other background

0.19

9.41

9,571

All minority ethnic population

2.01

100.00

All population

100.00

na

5,062,011

  • The size of the minority ethnic population was just over 100,000 in 2001 or 2% of the total population of Scotland.
  • Pakistanis were the largest minority ethnic group, followed by Chinese, Indians and those of Mixed ethnic backgrounds.
  • Over 70% of the total ethnic minority population were Asian: Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, Chinese or other South Asian.
  • Over 12% of the minority ethnic population described their ethnic group as Mixed.
  • The size of the minority ethnic population has increased since the 1991 Census. Whilst the total population increase between 1991 and 2001 was 1.3%, the minority ethnic population increased by 62.3%.

Age profiles

Charts 1.1-1.3 show the age profile by ethnic group for Scotland for all people, and for males and females separately.

chart

chart

chart

  • For both males and females, ethnic minority groups have a younger age distribution than the White groups; with the exception of the Caribbean group, more than 20% of the population for all other groups is less than 16 years old.
  • The Mixed group has the youngest age structure: 44% are under the age of 16 years.
  • The White Irish population has the highest proportion of people over pensionable age.

Chart 1.4 shows, by sex, the proportion of the population who are of pensionable age or over. For all ethnic groups there are a higher proportion of females of pensionable age and over, compared to males. The differences are most marked for the White population.

chart

Marital Status

Table 1.2: Marital status by ethnic group - All People aged 16 years and over

Percentages

Ethnic Group

Single

Married

Re-married

Separated

Divorced

Widowed

Base

White Scottish

30

44

5

4

7

9

3,568,744

Other White British

28

45

9

3

7

7

335,542

White Irish

32

43

4

4

6

11

46,650

Other White

42

38

6

3

6

6

66,740

Indian

34

55

2

3

3

4

11,564

Pakistani

29

59

3

4

2

3

21,301

Bangladeshi

31

59

2

2

2

3

1,372

Other South Asian

35

50

3

4

5

4

4,470

Chinese

41

48

2

2

3

3

12,786

Caribbean

43

35

5

6

8

3

1,464

African

42

44

3

5

4

2

3,902

Black Scottish or Other Black

41

34

5

5

8

7

794

Any Mixed Background

57

26

4

4

6

4

7,116

Other ethnic group

34

52

5

3

4

2

7,501

All People aged 16 years +

31

44

6

4

7

9

4,089,946

  • Individuals from Mixed backgrounds are more likely to be single than those of any other ethnic group (57%). More than 40% of individuals aged over 16 years from Caribbean, African, Other White, Chinese and Other Black Scottish backgrounds are also single. One of the reasons for this is likely to be the younger population in these groups (and the high proportion of students in many groups). For Scotland as a whole, 16-29 year olds are the age group who are most likely to be single (86.5% of the total age group are single). All minority ethnic groups have a higher proportion of the total adult population who are in the 16-29 age group compared to the White population, so it follows that these groups are more likely to show higher proportions of single people.
  • All minority ethnic groups, with the exception of Caribbean and Black Scottish/Other Black people, are less likely to be divorced compared to the White population.

Country of Birth

Tables 1.3(a-n) show the percentage of each ethnic group born in different countries or geographic areas. Only countries or areas which account for more than 0.5% (or 30 people) of the population are listed and data are presented at the lowest geographic area which passes this threshold thus the percentages will not add to 100%.

Table 1.3(a): White Scottish - All People
Percentages

Country of birth

Scotland

96.9%

England

2.0%

Base

4,459,071

Table 1.3(b): Other White British - All People
Percentages

Country of birth

England

81.1%

Scotland

6.1%

Northern Ireland

4.2%

Wales

3.5%

Other EU Countries

1.2%

Asia

1.0%

South East Africa

0.8%

North America

0.5%

Base

373,685

Table 1.3(c): White Irish - All People
Percentages

Country of birth

Republic of Ireland

39.9%

Scotland

28.0%

Northern Ireland

25.5%

England

4.8%

North America

0.6%

Base

49,428

Table 1.3(d): Other White - All People
Percentages

Country of birth

Other EU Countries

32.4%

Scotland

19.3%

USA

8.5%

Eastern Europe

7.7%

Oceania

7.7%

England

6.0%

South Africa

3.9%

Canada

3.8%

Non EU Countries in Western Europe

3.2%

Middle East

1.3%

South America

1.1%

Northern Ireland

1.0%

North Africa

0.7%

Zimbabwe

0.6%

Far East (excl China)

0.5%

Base

78,150

Table 1.3(e): Indian - All People
Percentages

Country of Birth

India

41.5%

Scotland

33.8%

England

14.2%

Kenya

2.1%

South and East Africa (excl Kenya)

2.6%

Far East (excl China)

1.5%

Pakistan

0.7%

North America

0.5%

Base

15,037

Table 1.3(f): Pakistani - All People
Percentages

Country of Birth

Scotland

47.4%

Pakistan

36.7%

England

10.7%

India

2.9%

South and Eastern Africa

0.6%

Base

31,793

Table 1.3(g): Bangladeshi - All People
Percentages

Country of Birth

Bangladesh

52.8%

Scotland

33.0%

England

10.1%

Pakistan

0.9%

India

0.5%

Other

0.5%

Far East

0.5%

Base

1,981

Table 1.3(h): Other South Asian - All People
Percentages

Country of Birth

Scotland

31.1%

Middle East

29.3%

South Asia (excl India, Pakistan and Bangladesh)

13.5%

England

7.4%

Pakistan

4.1%

Far East (excl China)

3.6%

South and Eastern Africa (excl Kenya)

3.3%

India

2.9%

Kenya

1.1%

USA

0.5%

Eastern Europe

0.5%

North Africa

0.5%

Base

6,196

Table 1.3(i): Chinese - All People
Percentages

Country of birth

Far East (excl China)

44.9%

Scotland

29.7%

China

18.0%

England

4.0%

Other

0.5%

South Asia

0.5%

Other EU Countries

0.5%

Base

16,310

Table 1.3(j): Caribbean - All People
Percentages

Country of Birth

England

30.0%

Scotland

28.7%

Caribbean and West Indies (excl Jamaica)

22.7%

Jamaica

9.4%

South America

3.3%

Base

1,778

Table 1.3(k): African - All People
Percentages

Country of Birth

Scotland

17.5%

South and Eastern (excl Kenya, South African and Zimbabwe)

17.2%

Nigeria

14.8%

Central and Western Africa (excl Nigeria)

13.4%

North Africa

12.0%

Zimbabwe

7.7%

England

6.7%

Kenya

3.9%

South Africa

3.0%

Other EU Countries

0.8%

Other

0.6%

Middle East

0.6%

USA

0.5%

Base

5,118

Table 1.3(l): Black Scottish or Other Black - All People
Percentages

Country of Birth

Scotland

55.4%

England

16.1%

South and Eastern Africa (excl South Africa)

6.6%

USA

4.8%

North Africa

3.4%

South America

2.7%

Base

1,129

Table 1.3(m): Mixed - All People
Percentages

Country of Birth

Scotland

58.1%

England

15.0%

Far East (excl China)

5.3%

Middle East

3.1%

Other EU Countries

2.5%

USA

2.2%

South and Eastern Africa (excl South Africa and Zimbabwe)

1.9%

South America

1.8%

South Asia (excl India)

0.7%

Oceania

1.3%

North Africa

1.1%

Caribbean and West Indies

0.9%

South Africa

0.9%

Canada

0.8%

Eastern Europe

0.7%

Zimbabwe

0.6%

India

0.5%

Central and Western Africa

0.5%

Wales

0.5%

Base

12,764

Table 1.3(n): Other - All People
Percentages

Country of Birth

Far East (excl China)

40.8%

Scotland

13.7%

North Africa

10.5%

South America

4.0%

South Asia (excl Pakistan)

3.5%

England

3.1%

Oceania

1.7%

USA

1.6%

Other North America

1.5%

South and Eastern Africa (excl Kenya, South Africa and Zimbabwe)

1.4%

Other EU Countries

0.9%

Pakistan

0.5%

Eastern Europe

0.5%

Base

9,571

  • For all ethnic groups, Scotland is either the most common or the second most common country of birth. However, the percentages vary greatly between different ethnic groups: 47% of Pakistanis were born in Scotland compared to only 18% of Africans.

Country of birth can be used as a proxy for first or second plus generation and as such may be useful as a classification variable for further analysis on other variables. For example, it would be interesting to investigate whether highest level of qualification obtained varies within ethnic group between those who were born in Scotland (or the UK) and those who were born outside of Scotland (or the UK).

Ethnicity of spouse

Table 1.4 presents information on the ethnicity of married couples; each column of the table shows data for couples where at least one member of the couple is from that ethnic group. For example, for couples where at least one is Indian, 25.6% are Indian/White, 68.9% are both Indian and 1.9% are Indian/Pakistan. Couples where both members are from the same ethnic group will only appear once in the table (along the diagonal) but couples of different ethnic groups will appear twice. This allows the profile for each ethnic group to be looked at separately.

Table 1.4: Ethnicity of married couples - All Married Couple Families in Households
Percentages

At least one partner is…

White

Indian

Pakistani

Bangladeshi

Other South Asian

Chinese

Caribbean

African

Black Scottish or Other Black

Any Mixed Background

Other Ethnic Group

Ethnicity of other partner

White

99.2

25.6

9.8

18.4

43.3

26.9

87.9

54.5

84.6

88.4

71.3

Indian

0.1

68.9

1.1

1.9

4.5

0.5

0.4

0.5

0.0

0.9

0.5

Pakistani

0.1

1.9

85.9

1.7

7.5

0.4

0.6

1.5

3.3

1.4

0.6

Bangladeshi

0.0

0.2

0.1

73.5

0.8

0.1

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.2

0.1

Other South Asian

0.1

1.9

1.8

2.8

37.7

0.5

0.2

0.4

1.5

1.1

1.5

Chinese

0.1

0.5

0.2

0.5

1.1

70.4

0.2

0.2

0.4

0.6

1.0

Caribbean

0.0

0.1

0.0

0.0

0.1

0.0

7.8

0.6

0.7

0.3

0.0

African

0.1

0.1

0.2

0.0

0.3

0.1

1.2

40.2

2.2

0.2

0.4

Black Scottish or Other Black

0.0

0.0

0.1

0.0

0.3

0.0

0.4

0.6

4.4

0.2

0.2

Any Mixed Background

0.2

0.4

0.4

0.7

1.3

0.3

1.2

0.4

1.1

5.5

0.8

Other Ethnic Group

0.2

0.4

0.3

0.5

3.2

0.9

0.2

1.2

1.8

1.3

23.7

Base

985,473

3,606

6,370

346

1,509

3,526

512

1,034

272

1,840

3,141

Note: The four 'White' categories have been collapsed into one to compress the table.

  • Almost all married couples with at least one White partner are White/White couples.
  • 68.9% of couples with at least one Indian partner are Indian/Indian marriages, but 25.6% are Indian/White marriages. There are twice as many Indian men married to White women than White men married to Indian women (data not shown here).
  • 43.3% of marriages with at least one 'Other South Asian' partner are Other South Asian/White marriages. 60% of these marriages are South Asian men married to White women.
  • More than 50% of marriages with at least one African partner are African/White marriages. Again, 60% of these marriages are African men married to White women.