Hungry for Success - A Whole School Approach to School Meals in Scotland:

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Hungry for Success

Section 3 SCOTTISH NUTRIENT STANDARDS FOR SCHOOL LUNCHES

plate logoIntroduction
Eating for Health
Menu Planning by Food Group
Portion Sizes
Product Specifications
Drinking Water
Food and Drink Choices
Special Diets and Allergies
Children and Young People with Special Needs
Scottish Nutrient Standards for School Lunches

Introduction

3.1 We established a sub-group to consider the setting of nutrient standards for school lunches. The sub-group met on six occasions and also held an informal consultation workshop with representatives of the education authority catering services as their findings were emerging. The Food Standards Agency Scotland took on the further development of the product specifications referred to in Section 3.9.

3.2 Diet in childhood plays an essential role in growth and development, current wellbeing, educational performance and avoidance of chronic disease throughout life. Current knowledge on optimal diet for children is set out in the Dietary Reference Values Report (1991) and it is this report that forms the scientific basis for the design of the Scottish Nutrient Standards.

3.3 The proportion of the daily nutrient provision that should be achieved from a single daily lunch has been extensively reviewed by the Caroline Walker Trust Expert Working Group on School Meals (1992), the outcome of which were the Nutritional Guidelines for School Meals. These Guidelines cover the nutrients and micronutrients (vitamins and minerals) currently of most concern in school children's diets and remain largely appropriate for calculating the nutrient standards for Scottish school children. We therefore adopted these Guidelines as the basis of our recommended nutrient standards. In addition, we took the view that:

  • Fruits and vegetables should be considered as part of our nutrient standards, with around 30% being supplied by school lunch (World Health Organization Recommendations on Diet, Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Disease 1990)
  • Sodium provision should be no more than 30% of the Dietary Reference Value (Department of Health 1990).

3.4 It is recognised that the consumption of a diet based on bread, cereals and other starchy foods, fruits and vegetables, and low amounts of fat, sugar and salty foods is a fundamental consideration in catering provision. The provision of food and drink, which meets these nutritional standards, is a key part of achieving a healthy dietary intake, but we recognise that food provides considerably more than biological requirements. To perceive school food only in terms of nutrient delivery would be a missed opportunity for the development of social and life skills and for culinary richness.

Eating for Health

3.5 Nutrient standards can be achieved in a variety of ways which will involve consideration of menu planning (the composition of recipes used, the cooking and serving process), the product specification of individual food items, portion sizes and the frequency with which nutrient-dense foods are served during the school week. Eating for Health was developed as a model for healthy eating in Scotland by the Health Education Board for Scotland in 1996. It is nationally recognised and widely used by the food and catering industries as well as by health professionals, teachers and individual consumers, as a guide to the contents of a balanced meal or diet.

3.6 Eating for Health shows the proportion of the overall diet that should come from each of the five food groups in order to provide enough of the important nutrients (such as vitamins, minerals and protein) and fibre without too much fat (especially saturates) and sugar. The five food groups are:

  • bread, other cereals and potatoes
  • fruit and vegetables
  • milk and dairy foods
  • meat, fish and alternatives
  • foods high in fat, foods and drinks high in sugar.
Menu Planning by Food Group

3.7 To meet individual tastes the nutrient standards should be met by a choice of foods. Key points and menu-planning guidance is provided in Table 1. The descriptions of foods and frequencies served are given as basic guidance for catering practice. What is essential is the achievement of the nutrient standards. A flexible approach building on catering wisdom and experience, skills and local tastes is important in allowing a wide range of food and menu options to be available. It is important that good practice in menu design and food provision which demonstrates the achievement of these standards is shared. The Scottish Executive is commissioning the development of nutritional analysis software that will assist in the self-evaluation of nutrient standards ( see 5.18).

Portion Sizes

3.8 Portion size guidelines are necessary to assist caterers in planning lunches that meet nutrient standards for energy and other nutrients as well as to satisfy young appetites. Hungry children are more likely to snack on high fat and sugar confectionery. Guidance on portion sizes is provided in Annex D. In many cases schools will find that the portion sizes are substantially different from current practice. Larger portions of starchy food (bread, potatoes, pasta) and larger portions of fruits and vegetables will be required to meet the Scottish Nutrient Standards.

Product Specifications

3.9 Product specifications are being developed to help plan menus to meet the Nutrient Standards and to raise the quality of manufactured products used in school lunches. Our initial focus is upon fat and sodium content. They are being developed by the Food Standards Agency along with the working group referred to at 3.1 above. They will be developed according to a rolling programme covering the relevant food groups listed in Table 1. Consultation, including consulting with the food industry, on the practicality, palatability and affordability of achieving such specifications will be an integral part of developing the specifications.

Drinking Water

3.10 It is recognised that children need access to adequate amounts of fluids within the school day. Drinking water, which is free, fresh and chilled, should be provided with drinking cups or glasses within the dining room.

Food and Drink Choices

3.11 Promotion of appropriate food and drink choices is the responsibility of the whole school community. Within the dining room context there are specific issues that should be considered, including the following:

  • awareness of appropriate choices (e.g. poster or other point of sale promotional materials, signposting and other visual cues)
  • access to appropriate choices (e.g. counter positioning, easy access to promoted choices, less easy access to less favourable choices)
  • availability of appropriate choices (e.g. ensuring sufficient provision of promoted items, especially such items as non-fried potatoes and salad)
  • acceptability (e.g. promoted foods should taste good, be well cooked and attractively presented)
  • affordability (e.g. appropriate pricing policy should be considered).
Special Diets and Allergies

3.12 Medically prescribed special dietary requirements should always be accommodated. Catering staff should be appropriately advised of the specific nature of the dietary requirement and children requiring special diets should be made known to the caterer. Diet guidance sheets should be provided by a State Registered Dietitian in the form of detailed diet sheets or meal plans for the child concerned. This will indicate to the caterer the food choices that are suitable or should be excluded. The principle of variety and choice should apply equally where applicable to children on special diets as part of a wider child-centred approach to providing for these children.

Diabetes

3.13 All children with diabetes are advised to eat regular meals and snacks. All children with diabetes should have a meal plan, which has been prepared especially for them by a State Registered Dietitian. It is essential that the guidance on the meal plan is strictly adhered to.

Allergies

3.14 Food allergies are estimated to affect up to 2% of the adult population and are more prevalent in infants and children. A number of foods have been linked to food allergy, the most common of which are milk, wheat, peanuts, fish, soya, eggs and shellfish. A wide range of symptoms has been reported which vary in severity from a mild reaction to a very rapid and severe response.

3.15 Allergy to some foods, such as peanuts, peanut products, other nuts and shellfish can be particularly acute. People suffering from a severe food allergy need to know the exact ingredients in their food, because even a tiny amount of the allergenic food could kill them.

3.16 All pupils who have been diagnosed as having a food allergy should have a detailed diet sheet/meal plan prepared by a State Registered Dietitian. This will indicate the range of foodstuffs that should be excluded as well as those that are suitable.

Children and Young People with Special Needs

3.17 Children and young people with special needs may have particular problems associated with eating. It is important that anyone involved in caring for children and young people with eating difficulties is trained to ensure that they can give the best and most appropriate assistance. These problems should not be a barrier to enjoyment and participation in meals and food choice or to learning about healthy eating. No additional charge should be passed on to parents.

Recommendation 2: Each education authority should develop a policy for delivering, in partnership with parents and carers, medically prescribed diets and appropriate provision for children with special educational needs.

Scottish Nutrient Standards for School Lunches

3.18 These standards (Tables 2 and 3) are set for both the provision of food i.e. what the menu offers, and for the consumption of food i.e. what the child actually eats. The first of these, what the menu may offer, can be achieved by the caterer, but to influence the second will take a whole-school approach. Monitoring procedures will be set in place to monitor both the provision of food and the consumption of food by the child. See Section 5. The Scottish Nutrient Standards for School Lunches set out to ensure the provision of a meal that provides largely a third of a child's daily nutritional needs.

3.19 In Tables 2 and 3 the energy and nutrient requirements for children aged 5-18 years are presented as average values for males and females in three age groups. These guidelines provide figures for the recommended nutrient content of an average school lunch provided for children over one school week. In practical terms this is the amount of food provided, divided by the number of children eating it, averaged over a week. All the nutrient intakes in the tables are based on the average of the recommended intakes for boys and girls. The child's daily nutritional needs are expressed in terms of:

  • dietary reference value (DRV) (or daily requirement)
  • the reference nutrient intake (RNI) (the estimated amount of a nutrient that will meet the needs of most of the population)
  • estimated average requirement (EAR) (in the tables EAR is used for energy to show the average requirement for energy for boys and girls).

3.20 It should be noted that current recommendations of energy intakes are based on children achieving a balance between energy intake and energy output allowing for growth and development. It is clear that children who are physically inactive will require less energy to meet physiological requirements and that excess energy will be a major contributor to the development of excess body weight. Both diet and physical activity are part of a holistic approach to maximising children's health.

3.21 To protect and to promote the health of children three nutrients are considered particularly significant. Calcium is important for bone growth. Iron is important for preventing anaemia, especially in secondary age schoolgirls. Folates are particularly important, again for secondary aged schoolgirls. It is recognised that some nutrients are supplied in high amounts in only a limited range of foods. To assist caterers, guidance on rich sources of folate, calcium and iron are provided in Annex D.

3.22 We have adopted the higher level of 40% of RNI for iron and folate. In practice, levels have previously proved hard to achieve. It is our view, however, that because of the high health impact of a deficiency, efforts should be re-doubled to ensure adequate intakes.

3.23 We recognise that these standards will take time to implement. Our consultation suggested that this will be more straightforward to implement in primary schools than in secondary and that schools will need time to incorporate changes into financial and development planning. We expect all schools to make rapid progress, but expect a final implementation date of December 2004 and December 2006 for primary and secondary respectively.

Recommendation 3: The Scottish Nutrient Standards for School Lunches should be adopted and education authorities and schools should have them in place in all special schools and primary schools by December 2004 and in all secondary schools by December 2006.


Recommendation 4: School meal facilities should not advertise nor promote food or drink with a high fat or high sugar content.

Table 1: Menu Planning by Food Group

Group 1
(Bread, other Cereals and Potatoes)

Guidance for Primary and Secondary Schools

Supplementary Guidance for Secondary Schools

Rationale

Bread, other Cereals and Potatoes

Every school lunch should contain a portion or portions of food from this group.

Starchy foods are usually inexpensive and provide energy, fibre, vitamins and minerals. Children should be encouraged to fill up on these foods. Portions should be large enough to satisfy young appetites. See separate section on portion sizes ( Annex D).

Bread

A variety of extra bread, including brown and wholemeal, should be available daily as a meal accompaniment for all pupils, at no additional charge. Crusty bread, quarters of bread rolls and buns are popular and can be offered in baskets at the counter.

Garlic bread should be served a maximum of twice a week.

Bread can be provided in a variety of forms to replace fried products including naan, pitta and crusty bread.

The maximum sodium content of bread will be specified in the product specifications.

Provides for the varying appetites and energy requirements within this wide age group.

Limiting high fat options will help to reduce the total amount of fat in the menu.

This is to provide variety and alternatives to fried potatoes.

Bread contributes significant amounts of sodium to the diet. Setting this sodium restriction will contribute to UK-wide reduction of sodium in bread.

Rice, Pasta and Noodles

Rice and pasta should each be offered a minimum of once a week. Noodles should be offered where appropriate, e.g. with stir-fry or sweet and sour dishes.

This is to provide variety and alternatives to fried potatoes.

Potatoes

The following products should be served a maximum of twice a week in primary (and ideally in secondary) schools: roasts, chips, smiley faces and other shaped products, e.g. Alphabites, croquettes and waffles.

Local Authority Purchasing Officers should be encouraged to buy chips with as low fat content as possible.

The maximum fat content of potato products will be specified in the product specifications. If possible, all potato products should be oven baked rather than fried.

Where a fried item is offered, a non-fried alternative should also be offered.

We recognise that chips will continue to be available each day in some secondary schools, but encourage these schools to work towards the primary school standards. However, non- fried alternatives to chips, e.g. mashed, boiled and baked potatoes should be available daily and actively promoted.

Limiting fried and high fat options helps to reduce the total amount of fat in the menu. While trying to influence choice, with the prevalence of the cash cafeteria system in many secondary schools, we recognise that limiting the availability of chips in some secondary schools to twice a week may be unrealistic at present.

Children selecting fried options from the menu more than twice a week are likely to exceed the nutrient standard for total fat. Menu planners may therefore find fried food, including chips, can appear in the menu no more than twice per week.

Providing alternatives to fried potatoes is the first step to achieving the nutrient standard for fat.

Group 2 (Fruits and Vegetables)

Fresh, Frozen, Canned and Dried Varieties and Fruit Juice

Every school lunch whether hot, cold, or a packed lunch should contain two portions of food from this group.

The menu as a whole should provide a choice of at least two vegetables and two fruits in addition to fruit juice every day and throughout the lunch service. At least one of these vegetables should be served free of added fat including salad dressings.

Fruit, vegetables and salads provide vitamins, minerals and fibre and experts recommend five portions of fruit and vegetables a day.

Habitually low consumption of fruit and vegetables remains one of the most damaging features of the Scottish diet.

Vegetables

Fruit and vegetable choices should be actively promoted and consideration given to providing vegetables inclusively in the price of every meal. They should also be served in an appealing and easy to eat way.

Vegetable-based soup should contain a minimum of one portion of vegetables per serving and can then count as one portion.
Maximum sodium content of soup will be specified in product specifications.

Baked beans should be served as a vegetable a maximum of twice a week. Canned spaghetti and similar products should not be served in place of a vegetable.

If beans or pulses form the protein part of a main course, a vegetable that is not beans or pulses should also be available.

A child may be put off choosing vegetables if they have to pay extra for them.

Children often enjoy cold and raw vegetables best and salad and fruit bars are also popular.

Soup is a good vehicle for vegetables, popular with many children. We found that some schools had prohibited the serving of soup because of concerns about scalding. We recommend that practical solutions to operational issues arising from health and safety concerns should be found so that children are not denied this route to increasing their vegetable intakes.

Unlike most vegetables, baked beans do not contain Vitamin C. Processed tomato sauce should not be counted as a vegetable portion.

This increases the variety for the vegetarian option.

Fruit

Where there is choice, a dessert which provides at least one portion of fruit should be offered every day. Where there is no choice, a fruit-based dessert such as fresh fruit, fruit tinned in juice, fruit salads, fruit crumble, fruit jelly or fruit pie should appear on the menu a minimum of three times a week.

Pies, crumbles and other composite fruit dishes should contain a minimum of one portion of fruit per serving.

This increases the fruit content of the lunch.

Group 3 (Milk and Milk Products)

Milk and Milk Products, Yoghurts and Milk-based Desserts

Most school lunches should contain a portion or portions of food from this group.

Milk and milk products are an excellent source of several nutrients including protein, vitamins and calcium, important for good bone development.

Milk

Plain or flavoured drinking milk should be available as an option every day. Semi-skimmed and skimmed milks have the same amount of calcium as whole milk and should be provided for drinking as well as for cooking.

Milk is a good alternative to sugary fizzy drinks and semi-skimmed milk provides less fat. The use of semi-skimmed milk is in line with existing recommendations, e.g. the Scottish Diet Action Plan.

Cheese

Cheese should be served as the main protein item instead of meat or fish a maximum of twice a week.

Cheese to be served as cheese and biscuits, as part of a salad or as a filling for sandwiches and baked potatoes should have as low a fat and sodium content as possible. The maximum fat and sodium content of cheese will be specified in the product specifications.

Vegetarian alternatives to cheese should be available a minimum of three times a week.

Where there is no choice, cheese as a sandwich filler should be offered a maximum of three times a week.

Where a portion of cheese is served as the main protein item, it also counts as a portion of food from the meat, fish and alternative sources of protein food group, but can be higher in fat than other products in this group.

Cheese is a high fat food and the product specification will help to reduce the total amount of fat in the menu

This provides variety for vegetarians.

This provides variety and reduces fat intake.

Group 4 (Meat, Fish and Alternatives)

Meat, Fish and Alternatives, e.g. Eggs, Peas, Beans and Lentils

Every school lunch should contain a portion or portions of food from this group. of protein.

Meat, fish and alternatives such as eggs, beans and pulses are a major source

Beef, Pork, Lamb and Poultry

Red meat (beef, pork and lamb) based meals should be served a minimum of twice a week.

Lean meat should be used in dishes containing meat and this will have a fat content of about 10%.
Caterers should take steps to reduce the fat content of their meat dishes as much as possible.

The maximum fat and sodium content of stews, casseroles, meatballs and curries will be specified in the product specifications.

Red meat is a good source of iron.

This will help to improve the quality of meat used in recipes whilst reducing the overall fat intake.

The product specifications will help meet nutritional standards.

Processed Meat Products and Pies

Processed meat products, i.e. hot dogs, frankfurters, sausages, beefburgers, meatballs, haggis and shaped poultry products(e.g. nuggets), pastry topped pies and other pastry products (e.g. bridies, sausage rolls, Cornish pasties, Scotch Pies) should be served a maximum of once a week.

The vegetable content of composite dishes such as pies should be increased where possible. Potato-topped pies will have a lower fat content and should be encouraged in preference to pastry-topped pies.

Overall, meals should provide no more than 35% total energy from fat therefore inclusion of high fat dishes should be limited.

Processed meat products are likely to be high in fat.
If manufacturers can produce a suitable range of lower fat products this recommendation may be reviewed as part of the ongoing process of establishing product specifications.

Composite Dishes

The maximum fat and sodium content of lasagne, moussaka, macaroni cheese, spaghetti bolognese, tuna pasta bake, ravioli and other composite dishes will be specified in the product specifications. Vegetable content should be increased where possible.

Product specifications will help meet nutritional standards.

Fish

Fish, in addition to tuna fish, should appear on the menu a minimum of once a week.

Oil-rich fish (sild, sardines, kippers, salmon, mackerel and herring) should be served once a week. Mackerel salads and pâtés are often popular.

This will provide variety in the menu.

Oil-rich fish contain valuable, protective fatty acids that are deficient in the Scottish diet and their use should be encouraged.
Many children are unfamiliar with these foods and should be encouraged to try them through the use of tasters.

Processed Fish Products

The maximum fat and sodium content of fish portions, fish fingers and shaped fish products will be specified in the product specifications. Any fish products that do not meet these specifications should be served a maximum of once a week.

Overall, meals should provide no more than 35% total energy from fat therefore inclusion of high fat dishes should be limited. Fish should be presented in a form that children will eat.

Pizza

Maximum fat and sodium content for pizza will be specified in the product specifications and its frequency on the menu determined by its ultimate specification. Vegetable toppings should be encouraged and used wherever possible.

Pizza is often higher in fat than many other composite dishes.

Vegetarian Products

Vegetarian products resembling meat products, e.g. sausages and burgers made from textured vegetable protein (TVP) should have a similar protein content to meat products. Maximum fat and sodium content will be specified in the product specifications.

These products will be the main source of protein for vegetarians and it must therefore be available in a sufficient quantity in any meat replacements. Vegetarian products should meet the same specifications for fat as processed meat products.

Stir-in Sauce

Maximum fat and sodium content will be specified in the product specifications for stir-in sauces for bolognese, stews, curries and other ethnic dishes.

Limiting the fat and sodium content of these products will help in achieving the nutrient standards.

Group 5 (Foods containing Fat and Foods and Drinks containing Sugar

Foods containing Fat and Foods containing Sugar

The use of foods from this group should be limited. There should be no active promotion or advertising of full fat crisps, confectionery or fizzy, sugary soft drinks within the dining room.

Foods from this category are consumed to excess by Scottish children, providing excess fat, sugar and salt in the diet.

Sweetened Soft Drinks

Fizzy, sugary soft drinks should not be served as part of school lunch in primary schools and should not be encouraged in secondary schools. Carbonated water, plain water, milk and fruit juices are considered appropriate drinks. Flavoured waters are popular with children and low sugar versions are acceptable. We note the desirability to gradually wean Scottish children away from a predilection for sweet flavours. There is a popular movement amongst children to drinking plain water and this should be encouraged.

We recognise that sweetened soft drinks will be available each day in some secondary schools. However, they should not be served as part of a combination meal or meal deal or packed lunch. These schools may find that a staged progression from sugary fizzy drinks to diet versions and the promotion of lower sugar squashes and flavoured waters is helpful.
The promotion of chilled bottled water as well as the adequate provision of freely available drinking water is considered very important.

To achieve the nutrient standard for sugar and for the protection of dental health, we consider that there is no place for sugary, carbonated (fizzy) drinks as part of school lunches.

Confectionery, e.g. Chocolate, Sweets

Where confectionery is still being sold, it should be set away from the food service points.
A working distinction is made between manufactured confectionery and home baking.

This will discourage purchase as part of a meal and help to achieve the nutrient standard for sugar and for the protection of dental health.

Puddings, Cakes, Biscuits, Jam, Jelly and Ice Cream

Where there is no choice, all desserts on offer should be fruit and/or milk-based(including yoghurt). Caterers are, however, encouraged to review home-baking recipes to lower fats and sugars and include nutrient-rich, whole- food ingredients.

Desserts and puddings are a useful way of boosting the total energy in children's diets while providing important nutrients. They can also help to increase fruit intake. Specifications will help to lower fat intake.

Butter and Spreads

Only polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats, spreads and oils and low fat spreads should be used.

This will contribute to a reduction in the fat intake in line with the Scottish Diet Action Plan targets. As part of a healthy diet, it is also important to reduce the amount of saturated fats eaten, by replacing them with unsaturated fats(with an emphasis on monounsaturates).

Cooking Fats and Oils

Only polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats, spreads and oils should be used.

Savoury Potato Snacks, Crisps and Corn Snacks

Crisps should be offered as part of a combination meal option/meal deal or packed lunch a maximum of twice a week.
We believe that many pack sizes are too large and the fat content per 100g is excessive. The maximum pack size, fat and sodium content will be specified in the product specifications.

Crisps are commonly consumed throughout the day, e.g. at break times and eating multiple packets should not be encouraged.

Table 2: Nutrient Standards for School Lunches for Pupils in Primary Schools
Revised Nov 2003

Unit

Infants 5-6 years

Junior 7-10 years

Energy

30% of EAR 1
Mean of girl and boy

MJ/Kcal

2.04 MJ
489 Kcal

2.33 MJ
557 Kcal

Fat

Not more than 35% of food energy

Max

g

19

21.7

Saturated Fatty Acids

Not more than 11% of food energy

Max

g

6

6.8

Carbohydrates

Not less than 50% of food energy

Min

g

65.2

74.3

NME (non-milk extrinsic) Sugars 2

Not more than 11% of food energy

Max

g

14.3

16.3

Fibre/NSP (non-starch polysaccharides) 3

Not less than 30% of calculated reference value

Min

g

3.9

4.5

Protein

Not less than 30% of RNI 4

Min

g

5.9

8.5

Iron

Not less than 40% of RNI

Min

mg

2.4

3.5

Calcium

Not less than 35% of RNI

Min

mg

158

193

Vitamin A (retinol equivalents)

Not less than 30% of RNI

Min

g

150

150

Folate

Not less than 40% of RNI

Min

g

40

60

Vitamin C

Not less than 35% of RNI

Min

mg

11

11

Sodium

Not more than 30% of RNI

Max

mg

393

655

Fruit and Vegetables

1/3 of five portions per day

Portions

2

2

1

Estimated average requirement
2 These are added sugars rather than the sugar that is integrally present in the food (e.g. table sugar, honey, sugar in fruit juice and soft drinks)
3 Here calculated as 8g per 1,000 kcal
4 Reference nutrient intake

Table 3: Nutrient Standards for School Lunches for Pupils in Secondary Schools
Revised Nov 2003

Unit

All secondary11-18 years

Energy

30% of EAR 1
Mean of girl and boy

MJ/Kcal

2.70 MJ
646 Kcal

Fat

Not more than 35% of food energy

Max

g

25.1

Saturated

Not more than 11% of food energy

Max

g

7.9

Fatty Acids

Carbohydrates

Not less than 50% of food energy

Min

g

86.1

NME (non-milk extrinsic) Sugars 2

Not more than 11% of food energy

Max

g

18.0

Fibre/NSP (non-starch polysaccharides) 3

Not less than 30% of calculated reference value

Min

g

5.2

Protein

Not less than 30% of RNI 4

Min

g

13.3

Iron

Not less than 40% of RNI

Min

mg

5.9

Calcium

Not less than 35% of RNI

Min

mg

350

Vitamin A (retinol equivalents)

Not less than 30% of RNI

Min

g

185

Folate

Not less than 40% of RNI

Min

g

80

Vitamin C

Not less than 35% of RNI

Min

mg

13

Sodium

Not more than 30% of RNI

Max

mg

786

Fruit and Vegetables

1/3 of five portions per day

Portions

2

1

Estimated average requirement
2 These are added sugars rather than the sugar that is integrally present in food (e.g. table sugar, honey, sugar in fruit juice and soft drinks)
3 Here calculated as 8g per 1,000 kcal
4 Reference nutrient intake