Effective Interventions Unit: The effectiveness of Treatment for Opiate dependent Drug Users: An International Systematic Review of the Evidence

Listen

Effective Interventions Unit: The effectiveness of treatment for opiate dependent drug users: an international systematic review of the evidence

BIBLIOGRAPHY

STUDIES INCLUDED IN THE REVIEW

Abbott P.J., Weller S.B., Delaney H.D., Moore B.A. Community reinforcement approach in the treatment of opiate addicts. The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse 1998, vol. 24, 1-10.

Ahmadi-Abhari S.A., Akhondzadeh S., Assadi S.M., Shabestari O.L., Farzanehgan Z.M., Kamlipour A. Baclofen versus clonidine in the treatment of opiates withdrawal, side-effects aspect: a double-blind randomized controlled trial. Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics 2001, vol. 26, 67-71.

Akhurst J.S. The use of lofexidine by drug dependency units in the United Kingdom. European Addiction Research 1999, vol. 5, 43-49.

Amass L., Bickel W.K., Crean J.P., Blake J., Higgins S.T. Alternate-day buprenorphine dosing is preferred to daily dosing by opioid-dependent humans. Psychopharmacology 1998, vol. 136, 217-225.

Amass L., Bickel W.K., Higgins S.T., Badger G.J. Alternate-day dosing during buprenorphine treatment of opioid dependence. Life Sciences 1994, vol. 54, no. 17, 1215-1228.

Amass L., Kamien J.B., Mikulich S.K. Efficacy of daily and alternate-day dosing regimens with the combination buprenorphine-naloxone tablet. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 2000, vol. 58, 143-152.

Amass L., Kamien J.B., Mikulich S.K. Thrice-weekly supervised dosing with the combination buprenorphine-naloxone tablet is preferred to daily supervised dosing by opioid-dependent humans. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 2001, vol. 61, 173-181.

Amato L., Davoli M., Ferri M., Ali R. Methadone at tapered doses for the management of opioid withdrawal (Cochrane review). Oxford: The Cochrane Library, issue 1, 2002.

Avants S.K., Margolin A., Sindelar J.L., Rounsaville B.J., Schottenfeld R., Stine S., Cooney N.L., Rosenheck R.A., Li S.H., Kosten T.R. Day treatment versus enhanced standard methadone services for opioid-dependent patients: a comparison of clinical efficacy and cost. American Journal of Psychiatry 1999, vol. 156, no. 1, 27-33.

Ball J.C., Ross A. The effectiveness of methadone maintenance treatment. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1991.

Banbery J., Wolff K., Raistrick D. Dihydrocodeine. A useful tool in the detoxification of methadone-maintained patients. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 2000, vol. 19, 301-305.

Barnett P.G. The cost-effectiveness of methadone maintenance as a health care intervention. Addiction 1999, vol. 94, no. 4, 479-488.

Barnett P.G., Rodgers J.H., Bloch D.A. A meta-analysis comparing buprenorphine to methadone for treatment of opiate dependence. Addiction 2001a, vol. 96, 683-690.

Barnett P.G., Zaric G.S., Brandeau M.L. The cost-effectiveness of buprenorphine maintenance therapy for opiate addiction in the United States. Addiction 2001b, vol. 96, 1267-1278.

Battersby M., Farrell M., Gossop M., Robson P., Strang J. Horse trading: prescribing injectable opiates to opiate addicts - a descriptive study. Drug and Alcohol Review 1992, vol. 2, 35-42.

Berglund M., Andreasson S., Franck J., Fridell M., Hakanson I., Johansson B.A., Lindgren A., Lindgren B., Nicklasson L., Rydberg U., Salaspuro M., Thelander S., Öjehagen A. Treatment of alcohol and drug abuse - an evidence-based review. SBU Swedish Council on Technology Assessment in Health Care, 2001 (summary in English).

Bickel W.K., Amass L., Crean J.P., Badger G.J. Buprenorphine dosing every 1, 2, or 3 days in opioid-dependent patients. Psychopharmacology 1999, vol. 146, 111-118.

Bickel W.K., Amass L., Higgins S.T., Badger G.J., Esch R.A. Effects of adding behavioural treatment to opioid detoxification with buprenorphine. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 1997, vol. 65, no. 5, 803-810.

Broome K.M., Joe G.W., Simpson D.D. HIV risk reduction in outpatient drug abuse treatment: individual and geographic differences. AIDS Education and Prevention 1999, vol. 11, no. 4, 293-306.

Carnwath T., Hardman J.A. Randomised double-blind comparison of lofexidine and clonidine in the out-patient treatment of opiate withdrawal. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 1998, vol. 50, 251-254.

Carroll K.M., Ball S.A., Nich C., O'Connor P.G., Eagan D.A., Frankforter T.L., Triffleman E.G., Shi J., Rounsaville B.J. Targeting behavioural therapies to enhance naltrexone treatment of opioid dependence. Efficacy of contingency management and significant other involvement. Archives of General Psychiatry 2001, vol. 58, 755-761.

Cartwright W.S. Cost-benefit analysis of drug treatment services: review of the literature. Journal of Mental Health Policy and Economics 2000, vol. 3, 11-26.

Chalmers J.W.T. Edinburgh's community drug problem service - a pilot evaluation of methadone substitution. Health Bulletin 1990, vol. 48, no. 2, 62-72.

Charnaud B., Griffiths V. Levels of intravenous drug misuse among clients prescribed oral dexamphetamine or oral methadone: a comparison. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 1998, vol. 52, 79-84.

Chutuape M.A., Silverman K., Stitzer M.L. Use of methadone take-home contingencies with persistent opiate and cocaine abusers. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 1999, vol. 16, no. 1, 23-30.

Curran H.V., Bolton J., Wanigaratne S., Smyth C. Additional methadone increases craving for heroin: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study of chronic opiate users receiving methadone substitution treatment. Addiction 1999, vol. 94, no. 5, 665-674.

Dawe S., Griffiths P., Gossop M., Strang J. Should opiate addicts be involved in controlling their own detoxification? A comparison of fixed versus negotiable schedules. British Journal of Addiction 1991, vol. 86, 977-982.

de los Cobos J.P., Martin S., Etcheberrigaray A., Trujols J., Battle F., Tejero A., Queralto J.M., Casas M. A controlled trial of daily versus thrice-weekly buprenorphine administration for the treatment of opioid dependence. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 2000, vol. 59, 223-233.

del Rio M., Mino A., Perneger T.V. Predictors of patient retention in a newly established methadone maintenance treatment programme. Addiction 1997, vol. 92, no. 10, 1353-1360.

Dore G.M. Methadone maintenance treatment: outcomes from Otago methadone programme. New Zealand Medical Journal 1999.

Eder H., Fischer G., Gombas W., Jagsch R., Stuhlinger G., Kasper S. Comparison of buprenorphine and methadone maintenance in opiate addicts. European Addiction Research 1998, vol. 4, suppl. 1, 3-7.

Eissenberg T., Bigelow G.E., Strain E.C., Walsh S.L., Brooner R.K., Stitzer M.L., Johnson R.E. Dose-related efficacy of levomethadyl acetate for treatment of opioid dependence. A randomised clinical trial. Journal of the American Medical Association 1997, vol. 277, no. 24, 1945-1951.

Eissenberg T., Johnson R.E., Bigelow G.E., Walsh S.L., Liebson I.A., Strain E.C., Stitzer M.L. Controlled opioid withdrawal evaluation during 72 h dose omission in buprenorphine-maintained patients. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 1997, vol. 45, 81-91.

Fals-Stewart W., O'Farrell T., Birchler G.R. Behavioral couples therapy for male substance-abusing patients: a cost outcomes analysis. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 1997, vol. 65, no. 5, 789-802.

Farrell M., Ward J., Mattick R., Hall W., Stimson G.V., des Jarlais D., Gossop M., Strang J. Fortnightly review: methadone maintenance treatment in opiate dependence: a review. British Medical Journal 1994, vol. 309, 997-1001.

Fiellin D.A., O'Connor P.G., Chawarski M., Pakes J.P., Pantalon M.V., Schottenfeld R.S. Methadone maintenance in primary care. A randomised controlled trial. Journal of the American Medical Association 2001, vol. 286, no. 14, 1724-1731.

Fischer G., Gombas W., Eder H., Jagsch R., Peternell A., Stuhlinger G., Pezawas L., Aschauer H.N., Kasper S. Buprenorphine versus methadone maintenance for the treatment of opioid dependence. Addiction 1999, vol. 94, no. 9, 1337-1347.

Gerra G., Marcato A., Caccavari R., Fontanesi B., Delsignore R., Fertonani G., Avanzini P., Rustichelli P., Passeri M. Clonidine and opiate receptor antagonists in the treatment of heroin addiction. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 1995, vol. 12, no. 1, 35-41.

Gerra G., Zaimovic A., Giusti F., Di Gennaro C., Zambelli U., Gardini S., Delsignore R. Lofexidine versus clonidine in rapid opiate detoxification. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 2001, vol. 21, 11-17.

Gerra G., Zaimovic A., Rustichelli P., Fontanesi B., Zambelli U., Timpano M., Bocchi C., Delsignore R. Rapid opiate detoxication in outpatient treatment. Relationship with naltrexone compliance. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 2000, vol. 18, 185-191.

Gossop M., Marsden J., Stewart D. NTORS at one year. The National Treatment Outcome Research Study: changes in substance use, health and criminal behaviors at one year after intake. London: Department of Health, 1998.

Gossop M., Marsden J., Stewart D. NTORS after five years: changes in substance use, health and criminal behaviour during the five years after intake. London: Department of Health, 2001.

Gossop M., Marsden J., Stewart D., Lehmann P., Strang J. Methadone treatment practices and outcome for opiate addicts treated in drug clinics and in general practice: results from the National Treatment Outcome Research Study. British Journal of General Practice 1999a, vol. 49, 31-34.

Gossop M., Marsden J., Stewart D., Rolfe A. Treatment retention and 1 year outcomes for residential programmes in England. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 1999b, vol. 57, 89-98.

Gossop M., Marsden J., Stewart D., Rolfe A. Patterns of improvement after methadone treatment: 1 year follow-up results from the National Treatment Outcome Research Study (NTORS). Drug and Alcohol Dependence 2000, vol. 60, 275-286.

Gossop M., Marsden J., Stewart D., Treacy S. Outcomes after methadone maintenance and methadone reduction treatments: two-year follow-up results from the National Treatment Outcome Research Study. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 2001, vol. 62, 255-264.

Gossop M., Strang J. Price cost and value of opiate detoxification treatments. British Journal of Psychiatry 2000, vol. 177, 262 - 266.

Gowing L., Ali R., White J. Opioid antagonists and adrenergic agonists for the management of opioid withdrawal (Cochrane review). Oxford: The Cochrane Library, issue 1, 2001.

Gowing L., Ali R., White J. Buprenorphine for the management of opioid withdrawal (Cochrane review). Oxford: The Cochrane Library, issue 1, 2002a.

Gowing L., Farrell M., Ali R., White J. Alpha2 adrenergic agonists for the management of opioid withdrawal (Cochrane review). Oxford: The Cochrane Library, issue 1, 2002b.

Greenwald M.K., Johanson C.E., Schuster C.R. Opioid reinforcement in heroin-dependent volunteers during outpatient buprenorphine maintenance. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 1999, vol. 56, 191-203.

Greenwald M.K., Schuh K.J., Hopper J.A., Schuster C.R., Johanson C.E. Effects of buprenorphine sublingual tablet maintenance on opioid drug-seeking behavior by humans. Psychopharmacology 2002, vol. 160, 344-352.

Griffith J.D., Rowan-Szal G.A., Roark R.R., Simpson D.D. Contingency management in outpatient methadone treatment: a meta-analysis. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 2000, vol. 58, 55-66.

Gross A., Jacobs E.A., Petry N.M., Badger G.J., Bickel W.K. Limits to buprenorphine dosing: a comparison between quintuple and sextuple the maintenance dose every 5 days. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 2001, vol. 64, 111-116.

Gruber K., Chutuape M.A., Stitzer M.L. Reinforcement-based intensive outpatient treatment for inner city opiate abusers: a short-term evaluation. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 2000, vol. 57, 211-223.

Hartz D.T. A cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit analysis of contingency contracting-enhanced methadone detoxification treatment. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse 1999, vol. 25, no. 2, 207-218.

Heinbach H. Locus of control and heroin addiction in a methadone maintenance setting. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences 1997, vol. 57, no. 7a, 3253.

Hutchinson S.J., Taylor A., Gruer L., Barr C., Mills C., Elliott L., Goldberg D.J., Scott R., Gilchrist G. One-year follow-up of opiate injectors treated with oral methadone in a GP-centred programme. Addiction 2000, vol. 95, no. 7, 1055-1068.

Johnson R.E., Chutuape M.A., Strain E.C., Walsh S.L., Stitzer M.L., Bigelow G.E. A comparison of levomethadyl acetate, buprenorphine, and methadone for opioid dependence. The New England Journal of Medicine 2000, vol. 343, 1290-1297.

Johnson R.E., Fudala P.J., Jaffe J.H. Outpatient comparison of buprenorphine and methadone maintenance. Effects on opiate use and self-reported adverse effects and withdrawal symptomatology. NIDA Research Monograph 1991, vol. 105, 585-586.

Johnson R.E., Jaffe J.H., Fudala P.J. A controlled trial of buprenorphine treatment for opioid dependence. Journal of the American Medical Association 1992, vol. 267, no. 20, 2750-2755.

Jones H.E., Strain E.C., Bigelow G.E., Walsh S.L., Stitzer M.L., Eissenberg T., Johnson R.E. Induction with levomethadyl acetate. Archives of General Psychiatry 1998, vol. 55, 729-736.

Keen J., Oliver P., Rowse G., Mathers N. Keeping families of heroin addicts together: results of 13 months' intake for community detoxification and rehabilitation at a family centre for drug users. Family Practice 2000, vol. 17, no. 6, 484-489.

Keen J., Oliver P., Rowse G., Mathers N. Residential rehabilitation for drug users: a review of 13 months' intake to a therapeutic community. Family Practice 2001, vol. 18, no. 5, 545-548.

Kidorf M., Stitzer M.L., Brooner R.K., Goldberg J. Contingent methadone take-home doses reinforce adjunct therapy attendance of methadone maintenance patients. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 1994, vol. 36, no. 3, 221-226.

Kirchmayer U., Davoli M., Verster A. Naltrexone maintenance treatment for opioid dependence (Cochrane review). Oxford: The Cochrane Library, issue 4, 2001.

Kosten T.R., Schottenfeld R., Ziedonis D., Falcioni J. Buprenorphine versus methadone maintenance for opioid dependence. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 1993, vol. 181, no. 6, 358-364.

Kraft M.K., Rothbard A.B., Hadley T.R., McLellan A.T., Asch D.A. Are supplementary services provided during methadone maintenance really cost-effective? American Journal of Psychiatry 1997, vol. 154, no. 9, 1214 - 1219.

Landabaso M.A., Iraurgi I., Jimenez-Lerma J.M., Sanz J., Fernadez de Corres B., Araluce K., Calle R., Gutierrez-Fraile M. A randomised trial of adding fluoxetine to a naltrexone treatment programme for heroin addicts. Addiction 1998, vol. 93, no. 5, 739-744.

Lerner A.G., Gelkopf M., Oyffe I., Sigal M. Home-based inpatient treatment vs. outpatient day clinic treatment: a preliminary report in opiate-dependent patients. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 1995, vol. 183, no. 11, 715.

Ling W., Charuvastra C., Collins J.F., Batki S., Brown L.S., Kintaudi P., Wesson D.R., McNicholas L., Tusel D.J., Malkerneker U., Renner J.A., Santos E., Casadonte P., Fye C., Stine S., Wang R.I.H., Segal D. Buprenorphine maintenance treatment of opiate dependence: a multicenter, randomised clinical trial. Addiction 1998, vol. 93, no. 4, 475-486.

Ling W., Wesson D.R., Charuvastra C., Klett C.J. A controlled trial comparing buprenorphine and methadone maintenance in opioid dependence. Archives of General Psychiatry 1996, vol. 53, 401-407.

Marsch L.A. The efficacy of methadone maintenance interventions in reducing illicit opiate use, HIV risk behavior and criminality: a meta-analysis. Addiction 1998, vol. 93, no. 4, 515-532.

McCusker J., Vickers-Lahti M., Stoddard A.M., Hindin R.N., Bigelow C., Zorn M., Garfield M.F., Frost R., Love C., Lewis B. The effectiveness of alternative planned durations of residential drug abuse treatment. American Journal of Public Health 1995, vol. 85, no. 10, 1426-1429.

McCusker J., Stoddard A.M., Hindin R.N., Garfield F.B., Frost R. Changes in HIV risk behaviour following alternative residential programs of drug abuse treatment and AIDS education. Annals of Epidemiology 1996, vol. 6, no. 2, 119-125.

McCusker J., Bigelow C., Vickers-Lahti M., Spotts D., Garfield F., Frost R. Planned duration of residential drug abuse treatment: efficacy versus effectiveness. Addiction 1997, vol. 92, no. 11, 1467-1478.

McLellan A.T., Arndt I.O., Metzger D.S., Woody G.E., O'Brien C.P. The effects of psychosocial services in substance abuse treatment. The Journal of the American Medical Association 1993, vol. 269, no. 15, 1953-1959.

Metrebian N., Shanahan W., Wells B., Stimson G.V. Feasability of prescribing injectable heroin and methadone to opiate-dependent drug users: associated health gains and harm reductions. The Medical Journal of Australia 1998, vol. 168, 596-600.

Mino A., Page D., Dumont P., Broers B. Treatment failure and methadone dose in a public methadone maintenance treatment programme in Geneva. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 1998, vol. 50, 233-239.

Moos R.H., Moos B.S., Andrassy J.M. Outcomes of four treatment approaches in community residential programs for patients with substance use disorders. Psychiatric Services 1999, vol. 50, no. 12, 1577-1583.

Nemes S., Wish E.D., Messina N. Comparing the impact of standard and abbreviated treatment in a therapeutic community. Findings from the District of Columbia treatment initiative experiment. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 1999, vol. 17, no. 4, 339-347.

O'Connor P.G., Carroll K.M., Shi J.M., Schottenfeld R.S., Kosten T.R., Rounsaville B.J. Three methods of opioid detoxification in a primary care setting. A randomized trial. Annals of Internal Medicine 1997, vol. 127, 526-530.

O'Connor P.G., Oliveto A.H., Shi J.M., Triffleman E.G., Carroll K.M., Kosten T.R., Rounsaville B.J., Pakes J.A., Schottenfeld R.S. A randomised trial of buprenorphine maintenance for heroin dependence in a primary care clinic for substance users versus a methadone clinic. American Journal of Medicine 1998, vol. 105, 100-105.

O'Farrell T.J., Fals-Stewart W. Behavioral couples therapy for alcoholism and drug abuse. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 2000, vol. 18, 51-54.

Oliveto A.H., Farren C., Kosten T.R. Effect of LAAM dose on opiate use in opioid-dependent patients. A pilot study. The American Journal on Addictions 1998, vol. 7, no. 4, 272-282.

Pani P.P., Maremmani I., Pirastu R., Tagliamonte A., Gessa G.L. Buprenorphine: a controlled clinical trial in the treatment of opioid dependence. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 2000, vol. 60, 39-50.

Perneger T.V., Giner F., del Rio M., Mino A. Randomised trial of heroin maintenance programme for addicts who fail in conventional drug treatments. British Medical Journal 1998, vol. 317, 13-18.

Petitjean S., Stohler R., Deglon J.J., Livoti S., Waldvogel D., Uehlinger C., Ladewig D. Double-blind randomised trial of buprenorphine and methadone in opiate dependence. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 2001, vol. 62, 97-104.

Petrakis I., Carroll K.M., Nich C., Gordon L., Kosten T., Rounsaville B. Fluoxetine treatment of depressive disorders in methadone-maintained opioid addicts. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 1998, vol. 50, 221-226.

Petry N.M., Bickel W.K., Badger G.J. A comparison of four buprenorphine dosing regimens in the treatment of opioid dependence. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 1999, vol. 66, no. 3, 306-314.

Petry N.M., Bickel W.K., Badger G.J. A comparison of four buprenorphine dosing regimens using open-dosing procedures: is twice-weekly dosing possible? Addiction 2000, vol. 95, no. 7, 1069-1077.

Petry N.M., Bickel W.K., Badger G.J. Examining the limits of the buprenorphine interdosing interval: daily, every-third-day and every-fifth-day dosing regimens. Addiction 2001, vol. 96, 823-834.

Prendergast M.L., Podus D., Chang E., Urada D. The effectiveness of drug abuse treatment: a meta-analysis of comparison group studies. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 2002, vol. 67, 53-72.

Preston K.L., Silverman K., Umbricht A., DeJesus A., Montoya I.D., Schuster C.R. Improvement in naltrexone treatment compliance with contingency management. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 1999, vol. 54, 127-135.

Preston K.L., Umbricht A., Epstein D.H. Methadone dose increase and abstinence reinforcement for treatment of continued heroin use during methadone maintenance. Archives of General Psychiatry 2000, vol. 57, 395-404.

Preston K.L., Umbricht A., Epstein D.H. Abstinence reinforcement maintenance contingency and one-year follow-up. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 2002 (in press).

Rawson R.A., McCann M.J., Shoptaw S.J., Miotto K.A., Frosch D.L., Obert J.L., Ling W. Naltrexone for opioid dependence: evaluation of a manualized psychosocial protocol to enhance treatment response. Drug and Alcohol Review 2001, vol. 20, 67-78.

Resnick R.B., Galanter M., Pycha C., Cohen A., Grandison P., Flood N. Buprenorphine: an alternative to methadone for heroin dependence treatment. Psychopharmacology Bulletin 1992, vol. 28, no. 1, 109-113.

Rosenbach A., Hunot V. The introduction of a methadone prescribing programme to a drug-free treatment service: implications for harm reduction. Addiction 1995, vol. 90, 815-821.

Rosenheck R., Kosten T. Buprenorphine for opiate addiction: potential economic impact. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 2001, vol. 63, 253-262.

Ryrie I.W., Dickson J., Robbins C., Maclean K., Climpson C. Evaluation of a low-threshold clinic for opiate-dependent drug users. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing 1997, vol. 4, 105-110.

Schaffer H.J., LaSalvia T.A., Stein J.P. Comparing hatha yoga with dynamic group psychotherapy for enhancing methadone maintenance treatment: a randomised clinical trial. Alternative Therapies 1997, vol. 3, no. 4, 57-66.

Schottenfeld R.S., Pakes J.R., O'Connor P., Chawarski M., Oliveto A., Kosten T.R. Thrice-weekly versus daily buprenorphine maintenance. Biological Psychiatry 2000, vol. 47, 1072-1079.

Schottenfeld R.S., Pakes J.R., Oliveto A., Ziedonis D., Kosten T.R. Buprenorphine vs methadone maintenance treatment for concurrent opioid dependence and cocaine abuse. Archives of General Psychiatry 1997, vol. 54, 713-720.

Sees K.L., Delucchi K.L., Masson C., Rosen A., Clark H.W., Robillard H., Banys P., Hall S.M. Methadone maintenance vs 180-day psychosocially enriched detoxification for treatment of opioid dependence. Journal of the American Medical Association 2000, vol. 283, no. 10, 1303-1310.

Staedt J., Wassmuth F., Stoppe G., Hajak G., Rodenbeck A., Poser W., Ruther E. Effects of chronic treatment with methadone and naltrexone on sleep in addicts. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 1996, vol. 246, no. 6, 305-309.

Strain E.C., Stitzer M.L., Liebson I.A., Bigelow G.E. Dose-response effects of methadone in the treatment of opioid dependence. Annals of Internal Medicine 1993, vol. 119, no. 1, 23-27.

Strain E.C., Stitzer M.L., Liebson I.A., Bigelow G.E. Comparison of buprenorphine and methadone in the treatment of opioid dependence. American Journal of Psychiatry 1994, vol. 151, 1025-1030.

Strang J., Marsden J., Cummins M., Farrell M., Finch E., Gossop M., Stewart D., Welch S. Randomized trial of supervised injectable versus oral methadone maintenance: report of feasibility and 6-month outcome. Addiction 2000, vol. 95, no. 11, 1631-1645.

Toumbourou J.W., Hamilton M., Fallon B. Treatment level progress and time spent in treatment in the prediction of outcomes following drug-free therapeutic community treatment. Addiction 1998, vol. 93, no. 7, 1051-1064.

Uehlinger C., Deglon J.J., Livoti S., Petitjean S., Waldvogel D., Ladewig D. Comparison of buprenorphine and methadone in the treatment of opioid dependence. European Addiction Research 1998, vol. 4, suppl. 1, 13-18.

Van Beusekom I., Iguchi M. A review of recent advances in knowledge about methadone maintenance treatment. RAND Europe, 2001.

van den Brink W., Hendriks V.M., Blanken P., Huijsman I.A., van Ree J.M. Medical co-prescription of heroin. Two randomized controlled trials. Utrecht: Central Committee on the Treatment of Heroin Addicts, 2002a,b.

Vanichseni S., Wongsuwan B., Choopanya K., Wongpanich K. A controlled trial of methadone maintenance in a population of intravenous drug users in Bangkok: implications for prevention of HIV. The International Journal of the Addictions 1991, vol. 26, no. 12, 1313-1320.

Ward J., Mattick R.P., Hall W. The effectiveness of methadone maintenance treatment: an overview. Drug and Alcohol Review 1994, vol. 13, 327-336.

White R., Alcorn R., Feinmann C. Two methods of community detoxification from opiates: an open-label comparison of lofexidine and buprenorphine. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 2001, vol. 65, 77-83.

Wilson P., Watson R., Ralston G.E. Methadone maintenance in general practice: patients, workload, and outcomes. British Medical Journal 1994, vol. 309, 641-644.

Woody G.E., McLellan A.T., Luborsky L., O'Brien C.P. Psychotherapy in community methadone programs: a validation study. American Journal of Psychiatry 1995, vol. 152, no. 9, 1302-1308.

Yancovitz S.R., Des Jarlais D.C., Peyser N.P., Drew E., Friedmann P., Trigg H.L., Robinson J.W. A randomised trial of an interim methadone maintenance clinic. American Journal of Public Health 1991, vol. 81, no. 9, 1185-1191.

Zaric G.S., Barnett P.G., Brandeau M.L. HIV transmission and the cost-effectiveness of methadone maintenance. American Journal of Public Health 2000, vol. 90, no. 7, 1100-1111.

STUDIES EXCLUDED FROM THE REVIEW

Aiken L.S., Stein J.A., Bentler P.M. Structural equation analysis of clinical subpopulation differences and comparative treatment outcomes: characterizing the daily lives of drug addicts. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 1994, vol. 62, no. 3, 488-499.

Aszalos R., McDuff D.R., Weintraub E., Montoya I., Schwartz R. Engaging hospitalised heroin-dependent patients into substance abuse treatment. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 1999, vol. 17, nos. 1-2, 149-158.

Bargagli A.M., Sperati A., Davoli M., Forastiere F., Perucci C.A. Mortality among problem drug users in Rome: an 18-year follow-up study, 1980-97. Addiction 2001, vol. 96, 1455-1463.

Basu D., Mattoo S.K., Malhotra A., Gupta N., Malhotra R. A longitudinal study of male buprenorphine addicts attending an addiction clinic in India. Addiction 2000, vol. 95, no. 9, 1363-1372.

Blaney T., Craig R.J. Methadone maintenance. Does dose determine differences in outcome? Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 1999, vol. 16, no. 3, 221-228.

Camp J.M., Finkelstein N. Parenting training for women in residential substance abuse treatment. Results of a demonstration project. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 1997, vol. 14, no. 5, 411-422.

Caplehorn J.R.M., Bell J., Kleinbaum D.G., Gebski V.J. Methadone dose and heroin use during maintenance treatment. Addiction 1993, vol. 88, 119-124.

Caplehorn J.R.M., Ross M.W. Methadone maintenance and the likelihood of risky needle-sharing. The International Journal of the Addictions 1995, vol. 30, no. 6, 685-698.

De Ducla M., Gagnon A., Mucchielli A., Robinet S., Vellay A. Comparison of high-dose buprenorphine treatments of opiate-dependent outpatients in four healthcare networks. Annales de Médecine Interne 2000, vol. 151, suppl. B, 9-15.

Diamant K., Fischer G., Schneider C., Lenzinger E., Pezawas L., Schindler S., Eder H. Outpatient opiate detoxification treatment with buprenorphine. Preliminary investigation. European Addiction Research 1998, vol. 4, 198-202.

D'Ippoliti D., Davoli M., Perucci C.A., Pasqualini F., Bargagli A.M. Retention in treatment of heroin users in Italy: the role of treatment type and of methadone maintenance dosage. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 1998, vol. 52, 167-171.

Dore G.M., Walker J.D., Paice J.R., Clarkson S. Methadone maintenance treatment: outcomes from the Otago methadone programme. New Zealand Medical Journal 1999, vol. 112, no. 1100, 442-445.

Downey K.K., Helmus T.C., Schuster C.R. Treatment of heroin-dependent poly-drug abusers with contingent management and buprenorphine maintenance. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology 2000, vol. 8, no. 2, 176-184.

Eland-Goossensen M.A., van de Goor I.A.M., Benschop A.J., Garretsen H.F.L. Profiles of heroin addicts in different treatment conditions and in the community. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 1998, vol. 30, no. 1, 11-20.

Fingerhood M.I., Thompson M.R., Jasinski D.R. A comparison of clonidine and buprenorphine in the outpatient treatment of opiate withdrawal. Substance Abuse 2001, vol. 22, no. 3, 193-199.

Fiorentine R., Anglin M.D. Does increasing the opportunity for counseling increase the effectiveness of outpatient drug treatment? American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse 1997, vol. 23, no. 3, 369-382.

Friedmann P.D., Lemon S.C., Stein M.D. Transportation and retention in outpatient drug abuse treatment programs. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 2001, vol. 21, 97-103.

Gilman S.M., Galanter M., Dermatis H. Methadone anonymous: a 12-step program for methadone maintained heroin addicts. Substance Abuse 2001, vol. 22, no. 4, 247-256.

Glatt W. A new method for detoxifying opioid-dependent patients. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 1999, vol. 17, no. 3, 193-197.

Gowing L., Ali R., White J. Buprenorphine for the management of opioid withdrawal (Cochrane review). Oxford: The Cochrane Library, issue 1, 2002.

Grella C.E., Hser Y.I., Joshi V., Anglin M.D. Patient histories, retention, and outcome models for younger and older adults in DATOS. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 1999, vol. 57, 151-166.

Grella C.E., Joshi V., Hser Y. Program variation in treatment outcomes among women in residential drug treatment. Evaluation Review 2000, vol. 24, no. 4, 364-383.

Holder H.D. Cost benefits of substance abuse treatment: an overview of results from alcohol and drug abuse. The Journal of Mental Health Policy and Economics 1998, vol. 1, 23-29.

Hser Y.I., Anglin M.D., Fletcher B. Comparative treatment effectiveness. Effects of program modality and client drug dependence history on drug use reduction. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 1998, vol. 15, no. 6, 513-523.

Hulse G.K., Basso M.R. Reassessing naltrexone maintenance as a treatment for illicit heroin users. Drug and Alcohol Review 1999, vol. 18, 263-269.

Iguchi M.Y., Stitzer M.L. Predictors of opiate drug abuse during a 90-day methadone detoxification. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse 1991, vol. 17, no. 3, 279-294.

Joe G.W., Simpson D.D., Broome K.M. Retention and patient engagement models for different treatment modalities in DATOS. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 1999, vol. 57, 113-125.

Katz E.C., Gruber K., Chutuape M.A., Stitzer M.L. Reinforcement-based outpatient treatment for opiate and cocaine abusers. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 2001, vol. 20, 93-98.

Knight D.K., Simpson D.D. Influences of family and friends on client progress during drug abuse treatment. Journal of Substance Abuse 1996, vol. 8, no. 4, 417-429.

Kosten T.R., Morgan C., Kleber H.D. Treatment of heroin addicts using buprenorphine. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse 1991, vol. 17, no. 2, 119-128.

Krausz M., Verthein U., Degkwitz P., Haasen C., Raschke P. Maintenance treatment of opiate addicts in Germany with medications containing codeine - results of a follow-up study. Addiction 1998, vol. 93, no. 8, 1161-1167.

Langendam M.W., Van Brussel G.H.A., Coutinho R.A., Van Ameijden E.J.C. Methadone maintenance and cessation of injecting drug use: results from the Amsterdam cohort study. Addiction 2000, vol. 95, no. 4, 591-600.

Lenne M., Lintzeris N., Breen C., Harris S., Hawken L., Mattick R., Ritter A. Withdrawal from methadone maintenance treatment: prognosis and participant perspectives. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health 2001, vol. 25, no. 2, 121-125.

Llorente del Pozo J.M., Fernandez C., Gutierrez M. Prediction of relapse among heroin users treated in Spanish therapeutic communities. A comparison of different models. Substance Use and Misuse 2000, vol. 35, no. 11, 1537-1550.

Llorente del Pozo J.M., Gomez C.F., Fraile M.G., Perez I.V. Psychological and behavioural factors associated with relapse among heroin abusers treated in therapeutic communities. Addictive Behaviors 1998, vol. 23, no. 2, 155-169.

Maxwell S., Shinderman M.S. Optimizing long-term response to methadone maintenance treatment: a 152-week follow-up using higher-dose methadone. Journal of Addictive Diseases 2002, vol. 21, no. 3, 1-12.

McCann M.J., Miotto K., Rawson R.A., Huber A., Shoptaw S., Ling W. Outpatient non-opioid detoxification for opioid withdrawal. Who is likely to benefit? The American Journal on Addictions 1997, vol. 6, no. 3, 218-223.

Melnick G., De Leon G., Hawke J., Jainchill N., Kressel D. Motivation and readiness for therapeutic community treatment among adolescents and adult substance abusers. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse 1997, vol. 23, no. 4, 485-506.

Moos R.H., King M.J., Burnett E.B., Andrassy J.M. Community residential program policies, services, and treatment orientations influence patients' participation in treatment. Journal of Substance Abuse 1997, vol. 9, 171-187.

O'Connor P.G., Waugh M.E., Schottenfeld R.S., Diakogiannis I.A., Rounsaville B.J. Ambulatory opiate detoxification and primary care: a role for the primary care physician. Journal of General Internal Medicine 1992, vol. 7, no. 5, 532-534.

Ouimette P.C., Moos R.H., Finney J.W. Influence of outpatient treatment and 12-step group involvement on one-year substance abuse treatment outcomes. Journal of Studies of Alcohol 1998, vol. 59, 513-522.

Ouimette P.C., Finney J.W., Gima K., Moos R.H. A comparative evaluation of substance abuse treatment III. Examining mechanisms underlying patient-treatment matching hypotheses for 12-step and cognitive-behavioral treatments for substance abuse. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 1999, vol. 23, no. 3, 545-551.

Prendergast M.L., Podus D., Chang E. Program factors and treatment outcomes in drug dependence treatment: an examination using meta-analysis. Substance Use and Misuse 2000, vol. 35, 1931-1965.

Rabinowitz J., Cohen H., Kotler M. Outcomes of ultrarapid opiate detoxification combined with naltrexone maintenance and counselling. Psychiatric Services 1998, vol. 49, no. 6, 831-833.

Resnick R.B., Galanter M., Resnick E., Pycha C. Buprenorphine treatment of heroin dependence (detoxification and maintenance) in a private practice setting. Journal of Addictive Diseases 2001, vol. 20, no. 2, 75-83.

Romijn C.M., Platt J.J., Schippers G.M. Family therapy for Dutch drug abusers: replication of an American study. The International Journal of the Addictions 1990, vol. 25, no. 10, 1127-1149.

Roth A., Hogan I., Farren C. Naltrexone plus group therapy for the treatment of opiate-abusing health-care professionals. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 1997, vol. 14, no. 1, 19-22.

Saunders B., Wilkinson C., Phillips M. The impact of a brief motivational intervention with opiate users attending a methadone programme. Addiction 1995, vol. 90, 415-424.

Schottenfeld R.S., Pantalon M.V., Chawarski M.C., Pakes J. Community reinforcement approach for combined opioid and cocaine dependence. Patterns of engagement in alternate activities. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 2000, vol. 18, 255-261.

Segest E., Mygind O., Bay H. The influence of prolonged stable methadone maintenance treatment on mortality and employment: an 8-year follow-up. The International Journal of the Addictions 1990, vol. 25, no. 1, 53-63.

Sell L., Segar G., Merrill J. One hundred and twenty-five patients prescribed injectable opiates in the North West of England. Drug and Alcohol Review 2001, vol. 20, 57-66.

Shaham, Shufman, Scher, Barel, Zlotogorski, Cohen. Methadone maintenance and clonidine detoxification in the treatment of opiate addicts in Israel: suggesting evidence for cultural differences in the effectiveness of treatment modalities for opiate addiction. Israeli Journal of Psychiatry Related Sciences 1991, vol. 28, no. 3, 45-57.

Stark K., Muller R., Bienzle U., Guggenmoos-Holzmann I. Methadone maintenance treatment and HIV risk-taking behaviour among injecting drug users in Berlin. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 1996, vol. 50, 534-537.

Vignau J., Brunelle E. Differences between general practitioner- and addiction centre-prescribed buprenorphine substitution therapy in France. Preliminary results. European Addiction Research 1998, vol. 4, suppl. 1, 24-28.

Vignau J., Duhamel A., Catteau J., Legal G., Pho A.H., Grailles I., Beauvillain J., Petit P., Beauvillain P., Parquet P.J. Practice-based buprenorphine maintenance treatment (BMT): how do French healthcare providers manage the opiate-addicted patients? Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 2001, vol. 21, 135-144.

Wasserman D.A., Stewart A.L., Delucchi K.L. Social support and abstinence from opiates and cocaine during opioid maintenance treatment. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 2001, vol. 65, 65-75.

Zlotnick C., Franchino K., St. Claire N., Cox K., St. John M. The impact of outpatient drug services on abstinence among pregnant and parenting women. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 1996, vol. 13, no. 3, 195-202.

STUDIES UNABLE TO RETRIEVE

Akhurst J.S. The use of lofexidine by drug dependency units in the U.K. European Addiction Research 1999.

Goodman A.C. Short-term drug abuse treatment costs and utilization. Medical Care 1998.

Scherbaum N. Alternative strategies of opiate detoxification: an evaluation. Pharmacopsychiatry 1998.

OTHER REFERENCES

Audit Commission. Changing habits. The commissioning and management of community drug treatment services for adults. London: Audit Commission, 2002.

CASP NHS Critical Appraisal Skills Programme. Institute of Health Sciences. ( http://www.phru.org.uk/~casp/qualitative.html)

Cochrane Collaboration. Cochrane reviewers' handbook 4.1.4. Updated October 2001. ( http://www.cochrane.org/cochrane/resource.htm)

Coster R.L. Substance-abuse centers. Journal of Health Care Interior Design 1990, vol. 2, 55-63.

Department of Health, Scottish Home and Health Department, Welsh Office. Drug misuse and dependence: guidelines on clinical management. London: HMSO, 1999.

Dole V.P., Nyswander M.E. A medical treatment for diacetylmorphine (heroin) addiction: a clinical trial with methadone hydrochloride. Journal of the American Medical Association 1965, vol. 193, 80-84.

Drummond M.F., O'Brien B., Stoddart G.L., Torrance G.W. Methods for the Economic Evaluation of Health Care Programmes. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997.

Information and Statistics Division. Drug misuse statistics Scotland 2001. Edinburgh: Information and Statistics Division, 2002.

Inkster K., Matheson C., Bond C.M. A qualitative evaluation of the process and outcomes of Grampian patients attending residential detoxification programmes. Report to Grampian Health Board. Aberdeen: Department of General Practice and Primary Care, University of Aberdeen, 2002.

Scottish Executive. Drugs action plan: protecting our future. Edinburgh: Scottish Executive, 2000.

The Scottish Office. Tackling drugs in Scotland: action in partnership. Edinburgh: The Scottish Office, 1999.

Willis S. Drugs of abuse. Pharmaceutical Press, 1997.